ارزیابی ویژگی های فیزیکوشیمیایی و عملکردی نشاسته مقاوم ذرت حاصل از روش اتوکلاو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد فیزیک و مهندسی مواد غذایی، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استادیار، گروه پژوهشی فرآوری مواد غذایی، پژوهشکده علوم و فناوری مواد غذایی جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

نشاسته مقاوم به هضم (RS) به بخشی از نشاسته اطلاق می شود که پس از 120 دقیقه انکوباسیون در برابر آنزیم های هضم کننده مانند آنزیم آلفا آمیلاز بدون تغییر و هضم نشده باقی می ماند. در میان انواع نشاسته مقاوم، نشاسته مقاوم نوع 3 به علت پایداری حرارتی آن در طی فرایند حرارتی مواد غذایی مورد توجه بیشتری قرار گرفته است. به منظور تولید نشاسته مقاوم نوع 3، ساختار گرانولی نشاسته باید توسط حرارت و در حضور آب کافی تخریب شده و در ادامه زنجیره های آمیلوز پس از سرد کردن مجددا به یکدیگر متصل گردند. اتوکلاو نمودن محصولات بر پایه نشاسته منجر به پسروی و در نتیجه افزایش میزان نشاسته مقاوم می گردد. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی تاثیر دماهای مختلف اتوکلاو گذاری (108، 121 و 134 درجه سانتیگراد) و همچنین چرخه های اتوکلاو کردن-خنک کردن (1 تا 3 چرخه) بر میزان تشکیل نشاسته مقاوم و ویژگی های فیزیکوشیمیایی و عملکردی آن بود. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش دمای اتوکلاو و همچنین چرخه های دمایی، میزان تشکیل نشاسته مقاوم افزایش یافت. میزان حلالیت نشاسته مقاوم حاصل نسبت به نشاسته طبیعی ذرت افزایش چشمگیری داشت در حالی که از نظر میزان آمیلوز ظاهری دچار تغییر نشد. همچنین فرایند اتوکلاو-پسروی منجر به تغییر کریستال های نشاسته از نوع A به نوع B و V شده و درصد کریستالی نشاسته نیز افزایش پیدا کرد. تصاویر میکروسکوپ الکترونی نشان دهنده تغییرات چشمگیر در گرانول های نشاسته و ایجاد بافت اسفنج مانند در اثر فرایند اتوکلاو بود. همچنین کلیه ویژگی های بافتی (سختی، پیوستگی بافت، ارتجاع پذیری و صمغی بودن) نشاسته مقاوم در مقایسه با نشاسته طبیعی ذرت دچار کاهش شد.

چکیده تصویری

ارزیابی ویژگی های فیزیکوشیمیایی و عملکردی نشاسته مقاوم ذرت حاصل از روش اتوکلاو

تازه های تحقیق

  • تاثیر دمای اتوکلاو و چرخه‌های حرارت دهی بر تشکیل نشاسته مقاوم از نشاسته طبیعی ذرت مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
  • افزایش دمای اتوکلاو و چرخه‌های حرارت دهی باعث افزایش میزان نشاسته مقاوم گردید.
  • فرایند اتوکلاو منجر به تغییر ساختار کریستالی نشاسته ذرت از نوع A به B و V گردید.
  • ویژگی‌های بافتی ژل حاصل از نشاسته مقاوم در مقایسه با نشاسته طبیعی دچار کاهش شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of physicochemical and functional properties of corn resistant starch prepared by autoclaving method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Hashemi 1
  • Mostafa Mazaheritehrani 2
  • Sayyed Mohammad Ali Razavi 3
  • Elnaz Milani 4
1 PhD Student, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Resistant starch (RS) is part of starch, which remains unchanged and not digested after 120 minutes of incubation against digestive enzymes such as α-amylase. Among the various types of resistant starch, resistant starch type 3 has been given more attention due to its thermal stability during the heat treatment process of foods. In order to produce resistant starch type 3, the granular structure of starch should be destroyed by heating in the presence of sufficient water, followed by amylose chains re-association upon cooling. Autoclaving of starch-based products leads to retrogradation and, as a result, increases the amount of resistant starch. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various autoclaving temperatures (108, 121 and 134°C) and autoclave-cooling cycles (1 to 3 cycles) on the formation of resistant starch and its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that with increasing the autoclaving temperature as well as temperature cycles, the amount of resistant starch formation increased. The solubility of produced resistant starch was significantly higher than natural corn starch, while it did not change in term of apparent amylose. Also, the autoclaving-retrogradation process led to changes in starch crystalline type from A to B and V, and the degree of starch crystallinity also increased. Scanning electron micrographs showed significant changes in starch granules and formation of a sponge like texture which was due to the autoclaving process. Also, all textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess) of resistant starch were reduced compared to natural corn starch.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Resistant starch
  • Autoclaving
  • Corn starch
  • Structural properties
  • Functional properties
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