عنوان مقاله [English]
Carrot is one of the important root vegetables rich in bioactive compounds like carotenoids and dietary fibers with appreciable levels of several other functional components having significant health-promoting properties. These days novel methods have been applied corresponding to undesirable effects of conventional heat treatment on quality characteristics of carrot juice. In this study, effects of ultrasound power (from 200 to 700 W), temperature (from 30 to 60 ̊C) and treatment time (from 5 to 15 min) on total phenol content, antoxidative activity and cloud stability of treated carrot juice have been investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on three factor five level central composite designs was applied to analyses the results. Effect of all the independent variables on total phenol content was significant and results to decrease it. Also changes of antioxidative activity were significant during the ultrasound treatment and decreased by increasing the power and time. By increasing the ultrasound power cloud stability at first increased and then reduced. Changes trend of cloud stability during the power increasing was opposite during the temperature increasing. The results show the qualitative characteristics of treated carrot juice by ultrasound were more desirable than untreated sample. Therefore ultrasound is a suitable replacement for the conventional heat treatment.
 مختاری، ز. (1383). مطالعه شرایط بهینه تولید کنسانتره آب هویج. پایاننامه کارشناسی ارشد صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس. 136 صفحه.
 Datt Sharma, K., Karki, S., Thakur, N. S., and Attri, S. (2012). Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot—a review. Food Science Technology, 49(1): 22–32.
 Patterson, M. F., McKay, A. M., Connolly, M. and Linton, M. (2012). The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological quality and safety of carrot juice during refrigerated storage. Food Microbiology, 30: 205-212.
 Kuldiloke, J. (2002). Effect of ultrasound, temperature and pressure treatments on enzyme activity and quality indicators of fruit and vegetable juices, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Food Technology Food Biotechnology and Process Technology the Technical University of Berlin.
 Beuchat, L. R., and Brackett, R. E. (1990). Inhibitory effects of raw carrots on Listeria monocytogenes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56: 1734-1742.
 Nguyen-the, C., and Lund, B. M. (1991). The lethal effect of carrot on Listeria species. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 70: 479-488.
 Adekunte, A. O., Tiwari, B. K., Cullen, P. J., Scannell, A. G. M., and O’Donnell, C. P. (2010). Effect of sonication on colour, ascorbic acid and yeast inactivation in tomato juice. Food Chemistry, 122(3): 500-507.
 Sala, F. J., Burgos, J., Condon, S., Lopez, P., and Raso, J. (1995). Effect of heat and ultrasound on microorganisms and enzymes. In: Gould, G.W. (Ed.),New methods of food preservation. Blackie Academic and Professional, London,: pp. 176–204.
 Soria, A.C. and Villamiel, M. (2010). Effect of ultrasound on the technological properties and bioactivity of food: a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 21(7): 323-331.
 Tezcan, F., Gültekin-Özgüven, M., Diken, T., Özçelik, B., and Erim, F.B. (2009). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic, organic acid and sugar content in commercial pomegranate juices. Food Chemistry, 115(3): 873-877.
 Çam, M. H. Y., and Durmaz, G. (2009). Classification of eight pomegranate juices based on antioxidant capacity measured by four methods. Food Chemistry, 112(3): 721-726.
 Kimball, D. A. (1999). Citrus Processing. Second edition, California, Chapman and Hall Food Science Book, 256-280.
 Hager, A., Howard, L. R., Prior, R. L., and Brownmiller, C. (2008). Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products. Journal of Food Science, 73(6): H134-H140.
 Mena, P., Martí, N., Saura, D., Valero, M., and García-Viguera, C. (2012). Combinatory effect of thermal treatment and blending on the quality of pomegranate juices. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8: 10-14.
 Maillard, M.-N., and Berset, C. (1995). Evolution of antioxidant activity during kilning: role of insoluble bound phenolic acids of barley and malt. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(7): 1789-1793.
 Paul, M. (2009). Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide and thermal processing conditions on phenolics, antioxidant activity, and yeast inactivation in muscadine and pomegranate juice, M. Sc. Thesis. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
 Chen, H. E., Peng, H. Y., and Chen B. H. (1996). Stability of carotenoids and vitamin A during storage of carrot juice. Food Chemistry, 57: 497-503.
 Zhao, L., Zhao, G., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Wu, J., and Hu, X. (2006). Different effects of microwave and ultrasound on the stability of (all-E)-Astaxanthin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: 8346–8351.
 Tiwari, B. K., Muthukumarappan, K., O’Donnell, C. P, and Cullen, P. J. (2009). Inactivation kinetics of pectin methylesterase and cloud retention in sonicated orange juice. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 10: 166–171.
 Tiwari, B. K., Muthukumarappan, K., O'Donnell, C. P., and Cullen, P. J. (2008a). Effects of sonication on the kinetics of orange juice quality parameters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(7): 2423-2428.
 Seshadri, R.,Weiss, J., Hulbert, G. J., and Mount, J. (2003). Ultrasonic processing influences rheological and optical properties of high-methoxyl pectin dispersions. Food Hydrocolloid, 17: 191−197.
 Tiwari, B. K., Muthukumarappan, K., O’Donnell, C. P, and Cullen, P. J. (2008b). Colour degradation and quality parameters of sonicated orange juice using response surface methodology. Food Science and Technology, 41: 1876-1883.
 Suzuki, Y., Sugimoto, A., Kakuda, T., and Ikegawa, Y. (2002). Manufacturing process of carrot juice. United States Patent, US 6340489.
 Kardos, E. (1979). Pretreatment techniques in fruit and vegetable production. Konzerv-es-Paprikaipar, 1: 14-19.