تولید کرایوژل و زیروژل کتیرا-ایزوله پروتئین آب پنیر به منظور بارگذاری و رهش کنترل شده سیلی‌مارین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، مؤسسه پژوهشى علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، مؤسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

سیلی‌مارین یک مخلوط فلانوئیدی است که اثرات ضد دیابتی آن به گستردگی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته و به اثبات رسیده است. در این پژوهش نمونه هاى کرایوژل و زیروژل مخلوط کتیرا- ایزوله پروتئین آب پنیر حاوى سیلی‌مارین تهیه شد و ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمایی، بافتی، مکانیکی و ریزساختار آنها با آزمون‌های طیف سنجى مادون قرمز، جذب و دفع نیتروژن، بافت سنجى و میکروسکوپ الکترونی مورد بررسى قرار گرفت. علاوه بر این نرخ تورم این ساختار‌ها و نیز آهنگ رهش سیلی‌مارین از آنها در شرایط اسیدی و قلیایی مورد ارزیابى قرار گرفت. نتایج آزمون ها حاکى از این بود که کرایوژل‌ها ساختاری متخلخل و شبکه‌اى از حفرات باز و بهم پیوسته داشتند، اما زیروژل‌ها بافتى بسیار فشرده و متراکم همراه با حفرات بسته و غیر مرتبط از خود نشان دادند. افزودن کتیرا به ایزوله پروتئین آب پنیر سبب بهبود خصوصیات فیزیکی، مکانیکی و مورفولوژیکی ژل‌های خشک گردید، درحالیکه سیلی‌مارین موجب افزایش تخلخل و تضعیف قدرت مکانیکی و مورفولوژیکی آنها شد. بارگذاری سیلی‌مارین همچنین سبب کاهش نسبت تورم ساختار‌های خشک گردید. این تغییرات که نتیجه برهم‌کنش‌هاى بین ملکولى کتیرا، ایزوله پروتئین آب پنیر و سیلى‌مارین مى باشد، با آزمون FTIR مورد تایید قرار گرفت. نتایج رهش سیلی‌مارین نشان داد که بخش عمده سیلی-مارین بارگذاری شده (80 درصد) در طول دوره بررسى رهش از کرایوژل آزاد شد، درحالیکه در این شرایط تنها 30 درصد از سیلی‌مارین بارگذاری شده از زیروژل خارج گردید. در مورد هر دو ساختار نرخ رهش در شرایط قلیایی بیشتر از شرایط اسیدی بود. نتایج مدل‌سازی ریاضی نشان داد که رهش سیلی‌مارین از کرایوژل و زیروژل‌های ایزوله پروتئین آب پنیر-کتیرا بر مبناى مدل کورسمیر-پپاس قابل پیش بینى است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Gum tragacanth-whey protein isolate cryo- and xerogels for entrapment and controlled release of silymarin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nushin Niknia 1
  • Rassoul Kadkhodaee 2
1 Ph.D. candidate of Food Science and Technology, Department of Food Chemistry, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Food Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Silymarin (SM) is a flavonoid mixture that has been extensively studied owing to its proven anti-diabetic effects. In the present study SM-loaded gum tragacanth-whey protein isolate cryo- and xerogels were prepared and their physico-chemical, textural, mechanical and microstructural properties were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), texture analyzer, N2 adsorption-desorption technique and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, swelling rate of gels and their SM release profile were investigated in acidic and basic conditions. The results indicated that cryogels were highly porous incorporating a network of interconnected open pores. In contrary, xerogels microstructure was quite compacted with internal closed and isolated pores. The addition of gum tragacanth markedly improved physic-chemical, textural, mechanical and morphological properties of the gels, while silymarin increased porosity and weakened the mechanical strength and morphological characteristics of the gel networks. SM loading also decreased the swelling ratio of gels. These macroscopic changes were linked to molecular interactions amongst gum tragacanth, whey protein isolate and silymarin as confirmed by FTIR spectra. The results of release measurements revealed that cryogels lost 80% of their silymarin content during exposure to acidic and basic condition, but xerogels strongly retained it within their matrix and underwent only a 30% loss. Both types of gels showed the highest release rate in phosphate buffer solution compared to acidic pH. Data fitting with release kinetics models indicated that the dissolution mechanism was controlled by Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cryogel
  • xerogel
  • Gum tragacanth
  • Whey protein isolate
  • Silymarin
  • Controlled release
[1]           Wang, F.Q., Li, P., Zhang, J.P., Wang, A.Q., Wei, Q. (2011). pH-sensitive magnetic alginate-chitosan beads for albendazole delivery. Pharm. Dev. Technol., 16, 228–36.

[2] Norton, I.T., Frith, W.J. (2001). Microstructure design in mixed biopolymer composites. Food Hydrocolloids, 15, 543–553.

[3] López-Franco, Y., Higuera-Ciapara, I., Goycoolea, F. M., Wang, W. (2009). Other exudates: tragancanth, karaya, mesquite gum and larchwood arabinogalactan, in: Philips, G.O., Williams, P.A. (Eds.), Handbook of Hydrocolloids,  Woodhead publishing Ltd., New Delhi, pp 495–534.

[4] Anderson, D.M.W., Grant, D.A.D. (1988). The chemical characterization of some Astragalus gum exudates. Food Hydrocolloids, 2, 417–423.

[5] Ranjbar-Mohammadi, M., Bahrami, S.H., Joghataei, M.T. (2013). Fabrication of novel nanofiber scaffolds from gum tragacanth/poly(vinyl alcohol) for wound dressing application: In vitro evaluation and antibacterial properties. Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 33, 4935–4943.

[6] Niknia, N., Kadkhodaee, R. (2017). Factors affecting microstructure, physicochemical and textural properties of a novel Gum tragacanth-PVA blend cryogel. Carbohydr. Polym., 155, 475-482.

[7] Niknia, N., Kadkhodaee, R. (2017). Gum tragacanth-polyvinyl alcohol cryogel and xerogel blends for oral delivery of silymarin: Structural characterization and mucoadhesive property. Carbohydr. Polym., 177, 315–323.

[8] Bottomley, R.C., Evans, M.T.A., Parkinson, C.J. (1990). Whey proteins, in: Harris, P (Ed), Food gels, Elsevier Science Publisher Ltd., Essex, pp 435-466.  

[9] Hongsprabhas, P., Barbut, S. (1997). Ca2+-Induced cold gelation of whey protein isolate: effect of two-stage gelation. Food Res. Int., 30, 523–527.

[10] Duval, S., Chung, C., McClements, D.J. (2015). Protein-Polysaccharide Hydrogel Particles Formed by Biopolymer Phase Separation. Food Biophys., 10, 334–341.

[11] Kim, H., Decker, E., Mcclements, D.J. (2006). Preparation of multiple emulsions based on thermodynamic incompatibility of heat-denatured whey protein and pectin solutions. Food Hydrocolloids, 20, 586–595.

[12] Turgeon, S.L., Beaulieu, M. (2001). Improvement and modification of whey protein gel texture using polysaccharides. Food Hydrocolloids, 15, 583–591.

[13] Bryant, C.M., McClements, D.J. (2000). Influence of xanthan gum on physical characteristics of heat-denatured whey protein solutions and gels. Food Hydrocolloids, 14, 383–390.

[14] Chung, C., Degner, B., McClements, D.J. (2013). Creating novel food textures: Modifying rheology of starch granule suspensions by cold-set whey protein gelation. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 54, 336–345.

[15] Dixit, N., Baboota, S., Kohli, K., Ahmad, S., Ali, J. (2007). Silymarin: A review of pharmacological aspects and bioavailability enhancement approaches. Indian J. Pharmacol., 39, 172-179.

[16] Grishechko, L.I., Amaral-Labat, G., Szczurek, A., Fierro, V., Kuznetsov, B.N., Celzard, A. (2013). Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde aerogels and cryogels. Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 168, 19–29.

[17] Müller, C.M.O., Yamashita, F., Laurindo, J.B. (2008). Evaluation of the effects of glycerol and sorbitol concentration and water activity on the water barrier properties of cassava starch films through a solubility approach. Carbohydr. Polym., 72, 82–87.

[18] Amaral-Labat, G., Szczurek, A., Fierro, V., Masson, E., Pizzi, A., Celzard, A. (2012). Impact of depressurizing rate on the porosity of aerogels. Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 152, 240–245.

[19] Swyngedau, S., Peleg, M. (1992). Characterization and prediction of the compressive stress-strain relationship of layered arrays of spongy baked goods. Cereal Chem., 69, 217–221.

[20] Salvador, A., Varela, P., Sanz, T., Fiszman, S.M. (2009). Understanding potato chips crispy texture by simultaneous fracture and acoustic measurements, and sensory analysis. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 42, 763–767.

[21] Betz, M., García-gonzález, C.A., Subrahmanyam, R.P., Smirnova, I., Kulozik, U. (2012). Preparation of novel whey protein-based aerogels as drug carriers for life science applications. J. Supercrit. Fluids, 72, 111–119.

[22] Panapisal, V., Charoensri, S., Tantituvanont, A. (2012). Formulation of Microemulsion Systems for Dermal Delivery of Silymarin. AAPS PharmSciTech, 13, 389–399.

[23] El-Sherbiny, I.M., Abdel-Mogib, M., Dawidar, A.A.M., Elsayed, A., Smyth, H.D.C. (2011). Biodegradable pH-responsive alginate-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nano/micro hydrogel matrices for oral delivery of silymarin. Carbohydr. Polym., 83, 1345–1354.

[24] Hadjiioannou, T.P., Christian, G.D., Koupparis, M.A., Macheras, P.E. (1993). Quantitative Calculations in Pharmaceutical Practice and Research, VCH Publishers Inc., New York, pp 345-348.

[25] Bourne, D. W. A. (2002). Pharmacokinetics, in: Banker G.S, Rhodes, CT (Eds), Modern Pharmaceutics. 4th ed., Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 67-92.

[26] Higuchi, T. (1963). Mechanism of sustained- action medication. Theoritical analysis of rate of release of solid drugs dispersed in solid matrices, J. Pharm. Sci., 52, 1145–1149.

[27] Jose, S., Fangueiro, J.F., Smitha, J., Cinu, T.A., Chacko,  A.J., Premaletha, K., Souto, E.B. (2013). Predictive modeling of insulin release profile from cross-linked chitosan microspheres. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 60, 249–253.

[28] Chen, H.B., Wang, Y.Z., Schiraldi, D.A. (2013). Foam-like materials based on whey protein isolate. Eur. Polym. J., 49, 3387–3391.

[29] Ahmadi, M., Madadlou, A., Saboury, A.A. (2016). Whey protein aerogel as blended with cellulose crystalline particles or loaded with fish oil. Food Chem., 196, 1016–1022.

[30] Wu, Y., Chen, Z., Li, X., Li, M. (2009). Effect of tea polyphenols on the retrogradation of rice starch. Food Res. Int., 42, 221–225.

[31] Eugenia, C., Curran, G. (2017). Evaluation of Whey-protein-isolate edible films containing oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil to improve shelf life of cheeses during refrigerated storage. J. Food Sci., 82, 1395-1401.

 [32] Blomfeldt, T.O. J., Olsson, R.T., Menon, M., Plackett, D., Johansson, E., Hedenqvist, M.S. (2010). Novel foams based on freeze-dried renewable vital wheat gluten. Macromol. Mater. Eng., 295, 796–801.

[33] Liu, L.S., Liu, C.K., Fishman, M.L., Hicks, K.B. (2007). Composite films from pectin and fish skin gelatin or soybean flour protein. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2349–2355.

[34] Pranoto, Y., Lee, C.M., Park, H.J. (2007). Characterizations of fish gelatin films added with gellan and κ-carrageenan. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 40, 766–774.

[35] Guerrero, P., Kerry, J.P., De La Caba, K. (2014). FTIR characterization of protein-polysaccharide interactions in extruded blends. Carbohydr. Polym., 111, 598–605.

[36] Eissa, A.S., Puhl, C., Kadla, J.F., Khan, S.A. (2006). Enzymatic cross-linking of beta-lactoglobulin: conformational properties using FTIR spectroscopy. Biomacromolecules, 7, 1707–1713.

[37] Timilsena, Y.P., Wang, B., Adhikari, R., Adhikari, B. (2015). Preparation and characterization of chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates. Food Hydrocolloids, 52, 554–563.

[38] Hasni, I., Bourassa, P., Hamdani, S., Samson, G., Carpentier, R., Tajmir-Riahi, H.A. (2011). Interaction of milk α- and β-caseins with tea polyphenols. Food Chem., 126, 630–639.

[39] Huang, G.Q., Sun, Y.T., Xiao, J.X., Yang, J. (2012). Complex coacervation of soybean protein isolate and chitosan. Food Chem., 135, 534–539.

[40] Espinosa-Andrews, H., Sandoval-Castilla, O., Vázquez-Torres, H., Vernon-Carter, E.J., Lobato-Calleros, C. (2010). Determination of the gum Arabic–chitosan interactions by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and characterization of the microstructure and rheological features of their coacervates. Carbohydr. Polym., 79, 541–546.

[41] O’Neill, G.J., Jacquier, J.C., Mukhopadhya, A., Egan, T., O’Sullivan, M., Sweeney, T., O’Riordan, E.D. (2015). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of whey protein hydrogels for oral delivery of riboflavin. J. Funct. Foods, 19, 512–521.

[42] Gunasekaran, S., Xiao, L., Ould Eleya, M.M. (2006). Whey protein concentrate hydrogels as bioactive carriers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 99, 2470–2476.

[43] Selmer, I., Kleemann, C., Kulozik, U., Heinrich, S., Smirnova, I. (2015). Development of egg white protein aerogels as new matrix material for microencapsulation in food. J. Supercrit. Fluids, 106, 42–49.