تاثیر روش‌های مختلف برشته کردن، شرایط بلانچینگ و پاستوریزاسیون بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی و حسی شیرفندق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشجوی دکترا، پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی مشهد

چکیده

ارزش تغذیه ای بالا و وجود ترکیبات زیست فعال در فندق آن را به یک ماده غذایی با ارزش تبدیل کرده است. یکی از روش های افزایش مصرف سرانه فندق، فراوری آن به شیوه های متنوع از جمله تولید شیر فندق است. در این پژوهش، کاربرد روش های مختلف برشته کردن فندق (مادون قرمز، مایکرویو، هوای داغ)، زمان بلانچینگ (0، 15 و 30 دقیقه) و شرایط پاستوریزاسیون (5 دقیقه در دمای 95 درجه سانتی گراد، 15 دقیقه در دمای 85 درجه سانتی گراد و 25 دقیقه در دمای 75 درجه سانتی گراد) در تولید شیر فندق مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. هم‌چنین، از روش‌های چندمتغیره متقارن (تعیین ضرایب همبستگی و آنالیز شاخص‌های اصلی) و نامتقارن (فاکتوریل کاملا تصادفی و رگرسیون حداقل مربعات جزئی) به منظور بررسی خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی، شاخص‌های رنگی و ویژگی‌های حسی استفاده گردید. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که با افزایش زمان بلانچینگ، pH، شاخص پایداری فیزیکی و مولفه L*، بطور معنی داری (05/0˂p) افزایش ولی اسیدیته، محتوای مواد جامد، پروتئین، چربی، ویسکوزیته و مولفه b*، کاهش یافت. در شرایط برشته کردن فندق با روش مادون قرمز، بلانچینگ آن به مدت 15 دقیقه در دمای 95 درجه سانتی گراد و سپس پاستوریزاسیون به مدت 15 دقیقه در 85 درجه سانتیگراد، بهترین خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی و حسی شیر فندق حاصل گردید. از تجزیه و تحلیل نمودار آنالیز شاخص‌های اصلی می‌توان دریافت که استفاده از روش های برشته نمودن مایکرویو و هوای داغ منجر به افزایش امتیاز ویژگی‌های حسی مربوط به طعم های پخته، گچی، برشته و تلخی می گردد. pH و اسیدیته دارای بیشترین ضرایب همبستگی معنی‌دار با خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی و حسی بودند. R2 مدل‌های رگرسیونی حداقل مربعات جزئی به‌دست آمده در محدوده متوسط به بالا بود که نشان دهنده کارایی بالای این معادلات در پیشگویی ویژگی‌های حسی نمونه‌های شیر فندق با استفاده از پارامترهای رنگ سنجی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Roasting Methods, Blanching and Pasteurization Conditions on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Hazelnut Milk

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Pourfarzad 1
  • Siamak Gheibi 1
  • Zahra Ahmadian 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student, Department of Food Processing, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

High nutritional value and bioactive compounds in hazelnut has become a valuable nutrient. One of the ways to increase per capita consumption of hazelnut is processing of it with different methods such as production of hazelnut milk. In this study, application of different roasting methods (infrared, microwave and hot air oven) blanching time (0, 15 and 30 min) and pasteurization conditions (5 min at 95°C, 15 min at 85°C and 25 min at 75°C) in hazelnut production were investigated. Also, the asymmetric methods (completely randomized factorial and partial least squares regression) and symmetric methods (coefficients of determination and principal components analysis) were used for study of physicochemical characteristics, color parameters and sensory aspects. The results of this study showed that pH, physical stability index and L * significantly increased (p˂0.05) but the acidity, total solids content, protein, fat, viscosity and b * decreased with increasing of blanching time. Hazelnut roasting using infrared method, blanching for 15 minutes at 95 °C and then pasteurization for 15 minutes at 85 °C achieved the best physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnut milk. It could be found from principal components analysis (PCA) that roasting methods of microwave and hot air oven results in the increase of sensory scores of cooked, chalky, roasted and bitter flavors. pH and acidity had the best significant correlation coefficients with physicochemical and sensory properties. Obtained R2 of partial least squares regression models were above the medium range. It shows the high efficiency of these models in prediction of sensory characteristics of infrared hazelnut milks from color analysis indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Roasting
  • blanching
  • Pasteurization
  • Hazelnut Milk
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