بررسی اثر شرایط فرایند اکستروژن وفرمولاسیون بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی میان وعده حجیم بر پایه کنجاله بادام (Amygdalus communis L) و بلغور ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، علوم و صنایع غذایی، جهاددانشگاهی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشجوی دکترا، علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد سبزوار

3 استاد، علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

بحران کمبود مواد غذایی از یکسو و نیاز روز افزون جامعه به فراورده‌های غذایی نوین و مغذی، استفاده مجدد پس ماندهای کشاورزی را اجتناب ناپذیر می‌سازد. به کارگیری پس ماندهایی مانند کنجاله‌ دانه‌های روغنی موجب ورود مجدد این منابع ارزشمند به چرخه غذایی و ارتقاء ارزش تغذیه‌ای و تولید فراورده فراسودمند در صنعت غذا می‌گردد. از این رو در این تحقیق بر پایه طرح ترکیبی (Combined) اثر متغیرهای فرمولاسیون شامل؛ نسبت سطوح کنجاله بادام(Amygdalus communis L.) به بلغور ذرت(30:70-10:90درصد وزنی-وزنی) و شرایط فرایند اکستروژن شامل سرعت چرخش مارپیچ(220-120 دور بر دقیقه) و رطوبت خوراک ورودی(16-12 درصد) بر پاسخ‌های میزان رطوبت، فعالیت آبی، تخلخل، شاخص‌های رنگی(روشنی ، قرمزی و زردی) و ویژگی‌های حسی(بافت، رنگ و پذیرش کلی) میان وعده حجیم بررسی گردید. نتایج نشان داد؛ ویژگی‌های تحت بررسی فراورده نهایی متاثر از فرمولاسیون خوراک و شرایط فرایند اکستروژن بود، بطوریکه کاهش نسبت کنجاله بادام به بلغور ذرت و کاهش رطوبت خوراک ورودی موجب کاهش رطوبت و فعالیت آبی محصول گردید. در حالیکه افزایش کنجاله بادام به بلغور ذرت باعث کاهش تخلخل، شاخص زردی، صفات حسی (رنگ و بافت) شد. افزایش رطوبت منجربه افزایش تخلخل، کاهش روشنی و ویژگی حسی (بافت) گردید و افزایش سرعت چرخش مارپیچ نیز باعث افزایش تخلخل، شاخص روشنی رنگ، صفات حسی (بافت و پذیرش کلی) شد. نتایج حاکی از این بود که محصول ضمن داشتن ویژگی‌های تغذیه‌ای و بافت متخلخل، از لحاظ مصرف کننده نیز مورد پذیرش قرار گرفت. مطابق نتایج بهینه یابی به منظور تولید فراورده حجیم با ویژگی مطلوب میزان رطوبت76/2درصد، فعالیت آبی212/0، تخلخل723/0، روشنی رنگ62/68 و پذیرش کلی04/4، شرایط فرایند شامل نسبت کنجاله بادام به بلغور ذرت15:85، سرعت چرخش مارپیچ196 دور بر دقیقه و میزان رطوبت خوراک ورودی12% تعیین گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of extrusion conditions and formulation on some physicochemical properties of extrudate snack based on almond meal (Amygdalus communis L.) and corn grits

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elnaz Milani 1
  • neda Hashemi 2
  • S.Ali Mortazavi 3
  • Farideh Tabatabaee 3
1 Assistant professor, Department of Food Processing, Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad, Iran.
2 Young researchers and elite club, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran.
3 Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Demands for novel food sources and also food global crisis lead to use by-product agriculture. Due to the high nutrition content, in recent years, studies on the evaluation of food wastes are rapidly expanding. The utilization of processed by- products as food ingredient helps to improve the supply chain efficiency, and adds value to functional food products. The combined design was used to investigate the effects of extrusion conditions including feed moisture content (12–16%), screw speed (120–220 rpm) and blends of almond meal(Amygdalus communis L.): corn grits (10:90-30:70 %w/w)on the humidity, aW, porosity, color indexes (L, a and b) and sensory properties of the puffed snacks. The results showed that properties of extrudates were affected by formulation and extrusion conditions. Decreasing the almond meal and moisture content caused a decrease in humidity and aW of the snacks. In addition increasing the almond meal content caused a decrease in the porosity, yellowness index and texture of extruded products (P < 0.05). High screw speed leads to high porosity, lightness and sensory properties (texture and overall acceptance). Optimum condition was found to be the blends of almond meal:corn grits (15:85), screw rate of 196 rpm and feed moisture content of 12% that required to obtain humidity(2.76%), aW(0.212), porosity(0.723),lightness(68.62) and overall acceptance(4.04).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • extrusion
  • almond meal
  • expanded product
  • color index and sensory property
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