اثر فرایند خشک کردن بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی برگ گیاه علف چشمه (Nasturtium officinale)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دوره کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد آزادشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آزادشهر، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه شیمی، واحد آزادشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آزادشهر، ایران

چکیده

در این مطالعه، اثر روش‌های مختلف خشک کردن بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی گیاه علف چشمه شامل افت رطوبت، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، مقادیر ویتامین ث، فسفر، کلسیم و آهن بررسی شد. جهت خشک کردن برگ‌ها از خشک‌کن‌های آون هوای داغ با دماهای 40،50 و 60 درجه سانتی‌گراد، مایکروویو با توان‌های 360،180 و450 وات و روش آفتابی سنتی استفاده شد. از نظر مدت زمان خشک شدن، طولانی‌ترین و کوتاه‌ترین زمان به ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای خشک شده با آفتاب (1920 دقیقه) و مایکروویو 450 وات (22 دقیقه) بود. در نمودار‌های شدت افت رطوبت محصول، یک دوره سرعت ثابت و یک دوره سرعت نزولی دیده شد. با افزایش توان مایکروویو و دمای آون هوای داغ سرعت خشک کردن افزایش و زمان خشک کردن کاهش یافت. در روش آفتاب به دلیل نوسانات دمایی، خشک کردن با سرعت کمتری انجام شد. بیش‌ترین میزان ویتامین ث، آهن و کلسیم به ترتیب در تیمارهای خشک شده با آون 60 درجه سانتی‌گراد (9/6 میلی گرم بر صد گرم)، آفتاب (ppm 8/519) و مایکروویو 180 وات (68/210 گرم بر کیلوگرم) بدست آمد. همچنین، بیش‌ترین مقدار فسفر در خشک کردن با آون 40 درجه سانتی‌گراد (523/0 گرم در صد) حاصل گردید. به طور کلی، تیمارهای خشک شده با آون و ماکروویو با توجه به دارا بودن محتوای رطوبت کمتر در یک وزن ثابت نسبت به تیمارهای خشک شده با آفتاب، مقدار املاح بیشتری را در خود حفظ نمودند. بالاترین میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی به تیمار خشک شده با مایکروویو 360 وات تعلق داشت. با توجه به نتایج می‌توان اظهار نمود که خشک کردن گیاه علف چشمه با استفاده از آون 40 درجه سانتی‌گراد و مایکروویو با توان 180 وات از این جهت که میزان مواد مؤثره در گیاه به‌طور قابل‌ملاحظه‌ای نسبت به تیمارهای دیگر حفظ می‌شود، مطلوب‌تر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of drying process on qualitative and quantitative properties of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Hosna Ostadzadeh 1
  • S. Zahra Sayyed-Alangi 2
1 Graduated student, Department of Food and Science Technology, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study has investigated the effects of different drying methods on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves, including water loss, antioxidant activity, contents of vitamin C, phosphorus, calcium, and iron. Hot air oven dryer at three thermal levels (40, 50 and 60 °C), microwave dryer at the three powers (180, 360 and 450 W) and the sun were used for drying of the leaves. In terms of drying time, the longest and shortest times were related to the dried treatments with the sun (1920 min) and the microwave at 450 W (22 min), respectively. In the charts related to moisture loss rate of the product, there was a period of constant speed and a term with the falling speed of moisture loss. Drying rate was increased by increasing microwave power and temperature of hot air oven, but the drying time was decreased. In the sun method, drying was performed at a slower rate due to temperature fluctuations. The highest amounts of vitamin C, iron and calcium were obtained to the dried samples by the oven at 60 °C (6.9 mg.100g), the sun (519.8 ppm) and the microwave at 180 W (210.68 g/kg), respectively. Also, the highest content of phosphorus was achieved to the drying by oven at 40 °C (0.523 percent). Overall, the dried treatments by oven and microwave dryers due to less moisture contents in a constant weight than the dried treatments by the sun, more mineral contents were preserved. The most antioxidant activity was belonged to the dried treatment by the microwave at 360 W. According to the results, it can be said that drying watercress by oven at 40 °C and microwave at 180 W is more desirable, since the amount of active ingredients in the plant is preserved substantially compared to the other treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Watercress
  • Drying
  • Microwave
  • Hot-air Oven
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