Optimization of ultrasonic homogenization conditions of camel milk cream using multiple objective particle swarm algorithm

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor in food physics and Engineering in Department of Food Science& Technology , Agriculture Faculty , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran


In this research, the effects of ultrasound variables including power (120 to 360 W), time (1 to 6 min) and temperature (25 to 65 °C) on the average size of fat globules, Rheological properties (hardness, adhesiveness and consistency) and color parameters (whiteness index) of camel milk cream were investigated , Then, these properties were optimized using Box-Benken design models and Particle Swarm Optimization and and hill climbing algorithm (Numerical Optimization in Design Expert software). The results of the evaluation of the measured properties showed that with increasing power, time and temperature of ultrasonication, the average size of the fat globules decreased. The results of the back-extrusion test showed that only the power-time interaction at 95% confidence level had significant effect on the hardness and adhesiveness of the samples. So that the hardness and adhesiveness of the samples increased with increasing the time in low powers. The results also showed that with increasing the power and time of ultrasonication, whiteness index of samples increased. To compare the optimization performance of two-particle swarm and hill climbing algorithms, the average of 5 optimal points obtained from the two algorithms were compared by t-test. The results of t-test. showed that the particle swarm algorithm significantly achieved higher power and temperature and lower time, lead to significant decrease in average size of fat globules and increase in hardness. Therefore, it can be concluded that the particle swarm algorithm performs was better than the hill climbing algorithm in optimizing the models obtained from Box-Benken design in optimizing the homogenization conditions of camel milk cream.

Graphical Abstract

Optimization of ultrasonic homogenization conditions of camel milk cream using multiple objective particle swarm algorithm


  • Ultrasonic process applied as a rapid method in the homogenization process of camel milk cream.
  • Ultrasound treatment had an ability to reduce the average fat globule particle size, and increase the hardness and consistency.
  • Box-Behnken design employed to model the effects of ultrasound treatment conditions on properties of camel milk cream.
  • The particle swarm algorithm performs was better than the hill climbing algorithm in optimizing the homogenization conditions of camel milk cream.


Main Subjects

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