Effect of extrusion and formulation conditions on physicochemical characteristics of snack based on walnut and corn grits

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Kashmar, Iran.

2 Food Processing Research Department, Food Science and Technology Research Institute, ACECR, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Department of food processing, Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad, Iran.


Bulky snacks are always a considerable part of the snack of people in modern life and have many advocates due to their diverse taste and high shelf life time. In the production of these snacks, extrusion cooking technology is commonly used, and a mixture of several cereals such as corn, rice, wheat and millet can be used. In this study, the effects of extrusion variables including walnut (7-21%), different screw speeds (120-180 rpm) and feed moisture content (12-18%) on the extruded product were investigated. The results showed that increasing the feed moisture content, the expansion ratio increased and the oil absorption index (OAI) and water solubility index (WSI) decreased. With increasing screw speed, the WSI index, water absorption index (WAI), OAI index and hardness decreased. By increasing the amount of walnut, WSI index, expansion ratio, OAI and hardness increased, and the WAI decreased. Optimum condition was found to be the screw rate of 180 rpm, walnut of 14% and feed moisture content of 18%. Finally it can be concluded that walnut up to 14% increased the nutritional value, and could also maintain technological characteristics of snacks to offer to the market as a healthy product.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of extrusion and formulation conditions on physicochemical characteristics of snack based on walnut and corn grits


  • Increasing nutritional value of snack by using walnut؛
  • No chemicals were used to production of snacks؛
  • Optimization of variables affecting the of Walnut Snacks properties with response surface methodology (RSM)؛


Main Subjects

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