The Effect of Maceration and Ultrasound Extraction Methods on the Content of Phenolic Compounds of Propolis

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor of Chemistry, Department of Food Safety and Quality Control, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Food Engineering, Department of Food Chemistry, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran


In this study, the amount of total phenolic compounds in propolis extract obtained from extraction by two methods of maceration and ultrasound and also the effect of extraction method on the type and amount of each of phenolic compounds using chromatography method was investigated. Extraction by maceration method was carried out in different ratios (10, 30, 50% w/v) of propolis to ethanol solvent 70% at different time intervals (2, 8, 24 h). The ultrasonic extraction method was performed at different times (7, 14, 21 min) and vibrational amplitudes (60, 80, 100%). The maximum percentage of phenolic compounds in propolis extract was obtained from the maceration method applying the extraction time of 24 h and when the ratio of 10% w/v of propolis to solvent was 44.82%. However, with the ultrasonic method the maximum percentage obtained was at 21 min with a vibrational amplitude of 80%, where most of the phenolic compounds were obtained with 41.19%. Identification of phenolic compounds of extracts using high performance liquid chromatography showed that 15 phenolic compounds in the extract of propolis were obtained by maceration method, while 13 extracts were obtained by sonication. The highest recovery and identification components in propolis extract determined by both of the extraction methods was Pinocemberin, with 15.1% of extracts in the ultrasound method and 11.7% in the maceration method. The results of chromatography showed that the percentage of each of the compounds identified in the propolis extract which were extracted using ultrasound method, was higher than the ones extracted applying maceration method.

Graphical Abstract

The Effect of Maceration and Ultrasound Extraction Methods on the Content of Phenolic Compounds of Propolis


  • The extraction time regardless of the used method was an important factor in the efficiency and quality of extracted materials.
  • More phenolic compounds were extracted from the maceration method than the ultrasonic extraction method
  • The percentage of each of the extracted phenolic compounds by ultrasound was higher than the maceration method.
  • Pinocembrin was the most extracted and identified compound in the propolis extract from both methods.


Main Subjects

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