Determining Extraction Efficiency and Betalain Pigment Stability of Red Beetroot

Document Type : Research Article


Recently, there has been much attention to use of natural pigments as food colorants and healing components. Red beetroot is rich in betalain pigments. In this research, the effect of different solvents (water, water: ethanol: citric acid ratios (60: 40: 0) and (60: 38.5 :1.5)v/v and ascorbic acid concentration (in two levels of 0 and 0.05%)w/v on the extraction efficiency were studied. Betalains were extracted from red beetroot and encapsulated with different encapsulating agents including: maltodextrin (MD) with extract (ER) (20g: 100ml), gum arabic (GA) with extract (20g: 100ml) and maltodextrin+ gum arabic with(ER) (10g: 10g: 100ml) w/v (as encapsulating agents) and then were dried using the freeze dryer. Effect coating agents  were studied on the betalain stability. The results showed that various solvents have different effects on the extraction efficiency. Pure water and ethanol: citric acid as solvent, showed the highest (68%) and lowest (7.6%) extraction efficiency, respectively . Ascorbic acid increased  the stability of all betalain samples, but it had greatest impact on  water extracts and water - ethanol (p<0.05). Effect of different encapsulating agents were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with gum arabic and maltodextrin showed more recovery efficiency than the non- encapsulated betalain sample (as control).


Main Subjects

[1] Attia,Y., Gamila,Y., Moussa, M.E.M., Sheashea, E.R. (2013). Characterization of red pigments extracted from red beet (Beta vulgaris,L.) and its potential uses as antioxidant and natural food colorants. Egypt.J. Agric. Res., 91(3), 1095-1110.
[2]Delgado, F. (2000). Natural pigments:Carotenoids,Anthocyanins,and Betalains characteristic, biosynthesis, processing and stabilit. Crit.Rev  J. Food Sci., 40, 173-289
[3] Tesoriere, L., Allegra, M., Butera, D., Livrea, M.A. (2004). Absorption, excretion, and distribution in low density lipoproteins of dietary antioxidant betalains. Potential health effects of betalains in humans.  J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 941-945.
[4] Cai, Y.Z., Cork, H. (2000). Production and properties of spary dried amranthus betacyanin pigments . J. Food Sci., 65(6), 1248-1252.
[5] Elbandy, M.A., Abdelfadeil, M.G. (2008). Stability of betalain from red beet (Beta vulgaris). Egypt. J. Food Sci., 36, 49 – 60 .
[6] Haghi, A.K., Amanifard, N. (2008). Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer during Microwave Drying of Food Products.  Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering., 25, 491-501.
[7] Chronakis, I.S. (1998). On the molecular characteristics, compositional properties and structural-functional mechanism of maltodextrins:a review. Criti Rev Food sciNutr., 38(7), 599-637.
[8] Ersus, S., Yurdagelu,U. (2007). Microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments of black carrot (Daucus carotal) by spray drier. J. Food Eng., 80(3), 805-812.
[9] Robert, P., Gorena, T., Romero, N., Sepulvedu, E., Ghavez,J., Saenz, C. (2010). Encapsulation of polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegrate (Punica granatum) by spray drying. Int. J. Food Sci Technol., 45(7), 1386-1394.
[10] Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Lv, F., Bie, X. (2009). Study  on microencapsulation of curcumin pigments by spray drying. Eur Food Res Technal., 229 (3), 391-396.
[11] Desai, K.G.H ., Park, H.J. (2005). Recent developments in microencapsulation of fooding redients. Dry Technol ,23(7), 1361-1394.
[12] Karel, M., Langer, R. (1988). Controlled release of food additives. Risc S, Reineccius G. In; Flavour Encapsulation. American Chemical Society, Washington, pp177-191
[13]Oetjen G., Haseley P. (2004). Freeze-Drying. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co: Weinheim, 173-174
[14] Flink, J.M., Karel. M. (1970). Mechanisms of Deterioration of Nutrients. J. Food Sci., 35, 444-446.
[15] Dib Taxi, C.M.A., Menezes, H.C., Santos, A.B. and Grosso, C.R.F . (2003). Study of the microencapsulation of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia juice). J. icroencapsul., 20, 443–448.              
[16] Desobry S.A., Netto F.M., Labuza T.P. (1997). Comparison of spray-drying, drum-drying and freeze-drying for b-Carotene encapsulation and preservation. J. Food Sci., 62,1158–1162.
[17] Pitalua, E., Jimenez, M., Vernon-Carter, E., Beristain,  C. (2010). Antioxidative activity of microcapsules with beetroot juice using gum arabic as wall material. Food and Bioprocess Processing., 88(2-3), 253-258.
[18] Azeredo, H., Santos, A., Souza, A. (2007). Betacyanin stability during processing and storage of a microencapsulated red beetroot extract. American Journal of Food Technology., 4(2), 307-312.
[19] Janiszewska, E., Wlodarczyk, J. (2013). Influence of spray drying conditions on beetroot pigments retention after microencapsulation process. Acta Agrophysica., 20(2), 343-356.
[20] Ravichandran, K., Palaniraj, R., Gabr, A.R., knorr, D., Smetanska, I. (2014). Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process  on stability of betalains entract. J. Food Sci Technol., 51(9), 2216-2221.
[21] Francis, F.G. (2000).  Anthocyanin and betalains composition and application. Cereal Food World., 45, 208-213.
[22] Castellar, M.R., Obon, J.M., Alacid, M., Fernandez-Lopez, J.A.  (2003). Color properties and stability of betacyanins from Opuntia fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry., 51, 2772-2776
[23] مشرف بروجنی، ل. (1376).  بررسی تولید رنگ خوراکی قرمز از چغندر قرمز و پایداری آن طی فرایندهای غذایی. پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی ایران، پژوهشکده فناوری‌های شیمیایی. 
[24]  ظهوری، آ.؛ طباطبایی یزدی، ف.؛ مرتضوی، س.ع.؛ شهیدی، ف. (1393) بررسی و مقایسه میزان بازدهی و استخراج ترکیبات رنگی و طبیعی چغندر قرمز با استفاده از روش‌های عصاره گیری خیساندن و فراصوت. فصلنامه علوم و صنایع غذایی، شماره52، دوره13، صفحات 54-47.
[25] Khaled, A.S. (2005). Studies on extraction, encapsulation, and utilization of red pigments from roselle calyces and red beet roots. Doctor of philosophy, Department of Food Science and Technology Faculty of Agriculture, El-Fayoum, Cairo University.
[26] Rostamzad, H., Shabanpour, B, Kashaninejad, M., Shabani, A. (2011). Latin American Applied Research., 41, 135-140.
[27] Jacques, R.A., Freitas, L.S., Perez, V.F., Dariva, C., Oliveira, A.P., Oliveira, J.V., Caramao, E.B. ( 2005). Antioxidative activity of citric and ascorbic acids and their preventive effect on lipid oxidation in frozen persian sturgeon fillets. Ulrtasonics Sonochem., 14(1), 6-12.
[28] Gandia-Herrero, F. et al. (2010). Structural implications on color, fluorescences and antiradical activity in betalains.  Jtrebds in plant science., 232, 449-460.
[29] Apintanapong, M., Noomborm, A. (2003). The use of spray drying to microencapsulated 2-acetyl-1-pyrolidine, a major flavor component of aromatic rice. J .foodsci,Technol., 38, 95-102.