Analyzing the Chemical Composition and Quality Attributes of Cocoa Butter from Different Producers: A Comparative Study

Document Type : Research Article


1 Food Industries and Agriculture Research Center, Standard Research Institute of Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and food science, Tabriz University of Medical

3 3. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

4 Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


_ Cocoa butter is a highly prized and versatile product with a wide range of applications. It is a crucial component of chocolate due to its unique melting properties and ability to dissolve other ingredients. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the compositional characteristics of cocoa butter from different sources to ensure its quality and authenticity. This study aimed to analyze the triacylglycerols, fatty acids, sterols, sterene compounds, extinction coefficient, and Solid Fat Content (SFC) of cocoa butter from nine diverse samples. The findings revealed that the main triacylglycerols were POP (16.07-17.74), SOS (25.73-28.91), and POS (39.12-40.25), while the primary fatty acids were palmitic (26.25-28.96), stearic (32.46-35.64), and oleic acids (31.51-32.47). The dominant sterols were (55.04-56.98 %), stigmasterol (25.4-26.2 %), and campesterol (9.22-10.53 %), with the ratio of stigmasterol to campesterol (2.5 to 2.7) serving as an indicator of authenticity. The study also found minimal levels of stigmastadiene (0.0001–0.0039 ppm), indicating low oxidation products, and measured the SFC content at different temperatures. Overall, this comprehensive analysis provides valuable insights into the composition of cocoa butter from various sources, offering important information for quality control and detection of adulteration.

Graphical Abstract

Analyzing the Chemical Composition and Quality Attributes of Cocoa Butter from Different Producers: A Comparative Study


  • In this study, for the first time, a comprehensive research has been done on the authenticity (triacylglycerol, fatty acid and sterol compositions) and quality characteristics (styrene, extinction coefficient and SFC) of various imported cocoa butters in Iran in terms of important parameters related to the subject.
  • 2-The results indicate that the composition of sterols shows a major difference in distinguishing this type of fat from other edible vegetable oils, the ratio of stigmasterol to campesterol was 2.5 to 2.7 which can be effective for detecting fraud so can be used in standards and technical regulations. This important item has not been considered in any article so far.
  • 3-The use of the content dehydrated sterol compounds or stigmastadiene can be useful in determining the type of cocoa butter that has undergone a thermal process or obtained from the residue separated from the solvent. Because the cocoa butter used in chocolate must be food grade and high quality, evaluation this parameter might be important.


Main Subjects

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