Classification of hawthorn fruit based on ripeness level by machine vision

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of biosystem engineering, agriculture faculty, university of tehran,

2 Associated professor of illam university

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agriculture Machinery, Samangan Faculty of Agriculture, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), North-Khorasan, Iran


Marketability of the produced products largely depends on their appearance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop the required algorithms to extract, select, and classify the images’ features of hawthorn samples in order to classify different fruit classes based on the ripeness stages. Six hundred of hawthorn fruit samples were prepared. Afterward, a lighting box was designed and constructed to capture images from hawthorn specimens under controlled lighting conditions. After imaging and saving the images of hawthorn samples, image processing operation in MATLAB Software was done. In this step after image preprocessing, color and texture features were extracted. Through all extracted features, some features were selected as efficient ones by sequential selection method with quadratic base in MATLAB Software. Linear and quadratic discriminant analysis methods were used to classify the efficient features. The obtained results indicated that the methods were able to classify the images of hawthorn samples with same accuracies (98.67 %). Furthermore, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity parameters were calculated for the classifier models. The results indicated that the accuracy of hawthorn samples by classifier models based on linear and quadratic discriminant analysis models were 98.67 and 99.33 %, respectively in the train step and they were same as 98.67 % in the test step. Also based on the results of the determined parameters, the quadratic discriminant analysis model hade better performance than the linear discriminant analysis model.

Graphical Abstract

Classification of hawthorn fruit based on ripeness level by machine vision


  • A machine vision system with machine learning algorithm was used to evaluate the hawthorn maturity.
  • The proposed method was completely non-destructive and performed the classification with high accuracy and speed.
  • QDA and LDA algorithms classified hawthorn fruit with high accuracy.
  • The proposed method can be used to classify the products accurately.


Main Subjects

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Volume 9, Issue 4
August 2022
Pages 331-344
  • Receive Date: 12 March 2022
  • Revise Date: 17 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 08 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 08 May 2022