Effect of homogenization on encapsulation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel essential oil with basil seed gum

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (SANRU), Iran


Grapefruit (Citrus paradise L) belongs to the genus Citrus, a species of flowering plant in the family Rutaceae. Grapefruit peel can be used to produce valuable extracts or essential oils. Grapefruit peel has strong antibacterial and antioxidant properties. It is also used as an ingredient in cosmetics, perfumes, soaps and detergents. Grapefruit peel essential oil yield is 3.9%, which contains open ring hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and alpha terpenoids. In this study, the properties of microencapsulated grapefruit peel essential oil with basil gum under the influence of homogenization at ultra turrax speeds of 10000, 15000 and 20000 rpm were investigated. The results of GC / MS analysis show that D-limonene (65.61%) and caryophyllene (8.59%) are the most chemical constituents of grapefruit peel essential oil. The rheological parameters were fitted by non-time dependent models and Herschel Bulkely and Power law models had higher R2 than other models. In addition to the viscosity diagram in terms of shear rate, the models confirmed the pseudoplastic behavior (shear thinning) of the microencapsulated grapefruit peel essential oil solutions with basil gum. The viscosity of microencapsulated grapefruit peel essential oil solutions decreased with increasing ultra turrax speeds. Also, the coating efficiency, emulsion stability and antioxidant properties of the samples were higher at 10000 rpm. No specific changes in functional groups were observed in the FTIR test with increasing ultra turrax speeds. DSC results show that the two regions of of endothermic peaks (19.4-83.3) and exothermic peaks (210.2-265.1) were related to water evaporation and material decomposition due to thermal decomposition of polysaccharides, respectively.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of homogenization on encapsulation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel essential oil with basil seed gum


  • The solution of microencapsulated grapefruit peel essential oil with basil gum has a pseudoplastic (shear thinning behavior).
  • Rheological characteristics (KH and KP index) of microencapsulated grapefruit peel essential oil with basil gum decreased with increasing ultra turrax rpm.
  • Microencapsulation with basil gum has been effective and basil 10 has more antioxidant properties and emulsion stability.
  • Increasing the rpm of ultra turrax has weakened the encapsulation efficiency of microencapsulated grapefruit peel essential oil with basil gum.


Main Subjects

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