Preparation of barberry powder produced by foam mat method and the effect of dryer temperature on its properties

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University


The aim of this study was to achieve a foam mat with minimum density and maximum foam mat stability. In order to conduct research, first to produce foam, barberry juice is prepared, basil seed gum (BSG) is extracted and then foam is used using basil seed gum as a stabilizer in different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.3%) and agent Egg white powder (EWA) in different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) at 50°C was prepared by Foam mat drying method. A concentration of 1.5% egg white and a concentration of 0.3% basil seed gum were selected as the optimal concentration. The effect of different drying temperatures (50, 60 and 700C) on solubility, water absorption capacity, color, bulk density, water activity and FTIR foam consisting of the optimal concentration of egg white powder and basil seed gum in the optimal concentration were investigated. The results of analysis of variance showed that increasing the drying temperature significantly increased the solubility, brightness in the produced powder, while the water absorption capacity, density and aw significantly decreased. At high drying temperatures, denaturation of proteins and placement of hydrophobic groups on their surface are the reasons for reduced water absorption. Basil seed gum can be used to improve foam stability in foods containing egg white albumin.

Graphical Abstract

Preparation of barberry powder produced by foam mat method and the effect of dryer temperature on its properties


  • Stable foam of barberry juice formed using egg white powder and basil seed gum with a concentration of 1.5 and 0.3%, respectively.
  • Barberry juice powder was prepared well using hot air in the oven, by foam mat method.
  • The temperature of 70℃ hot air dryer has produced barberry powder with better quality properties.


Main Subjects

[1] Sharifi, A., Niakousari, M., Maskooki, A., & Mortazavi, S.A. (2015). Effect of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of barberry (Berberis vulgaris) extract powder. Int. Food
 Res. J., 22, 2364-2370.
[2] Meliania, N., El.Amin. Dib, M., Allali, H. & Tabti, B. (2011). Hypoglycemic effect of Berberis vulgaris L. in normal and streptozotocin– induced diabetic rats.
 Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 1 (6), 468-471.
[3] Amuie, A.M., Mojahed, M., & Mojahed, M. (2018). Entrepreneurship package for planting barberry by dryland method. (1nd ed.). Tehran, I.R. Iran: sadegh Publisher. [In Persian].
[4] Al-Dabbas, M.M., Suganuma, T., Kitahara, K., Xing Hou, D., & Fujii, M. (2006). Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Varthemia iphionoides Boiss Extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 108, 287-293.
[5] Pantelidis, G. E, Vasilakakis, M., Manganaris, G.A., & Diamantidis, G. (2006). Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries. Food Chem., 102, 777–783.
[6] Giusti, M.M., Rodriguez-Saona, L.E., & Wrolstad, R.E. (1999). Molar absorptivity and color characteristics of acylated and non acylated Pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. J. Agr. Food Chem., 47, 4631–4637.
[7] Razi., S.M., Motamedzadegan, A., Shahidi., S.A., & Rashidinejad, A. (2018). Basil Seed Gum Enhances the Rheological and Physical Properties of Egg Albumin Foams. J. Food Nutr. 8(6), 2575-7091.
[8] Sadahira M.S., Rodrigues M.I., Akhtar M., Murray B.S., & Netto F.M. (2016). Effect of egg white protein-pectin electrostatic interactions in a high sugar content system on foaming and foam rheological properties. Food Hydrocoll. 58: 1-10.
[9] Arzeni, C., Pérez,O. E., & Pilosof, A.M (2012) Functionality of egg white proteins as affected by high intensity ultrasound. Food Hydrocoll. 29: 308-316.
 [10] Belitz, H.D., Grosch, W., & Schieberle, W. (2009). Food Chemist. Springer-Verlag,Germany.
[11] Miquelim, J.N., Lannes S.C., & Mezzenga, R. (2010). PH Influence on the stability of foams with protein-polysaccharide complexes at their interfaces. Food Hydrocoll. 24: 398-405.
 [12] van den Berg, M., Jara, F.L.,  & Pilosof, A.M. (2015) Performance of egg white and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose mixtures on gelation and foaming.Food Hydrocoll., 48, 282-291.
[13] Shrestha, A.K., Ua-Arak, T., Adhikari, B.P., Howes, T., & Bhandari, B.R. (2007). Glass transition behavior of spray dried orange juice powder measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal mechanical compression test (TMCT). Int. J. Food Prop., 10, 661-673.
[14] Jakubczyk, E., Gondek, E., & Tambor, K. (2011). Characteristics of selected functional properties of apple powders obtained by the foam-mat drying method. In: Proceeding of the 11th Int. Cong. Eng. Food. (pp. 22-26), Athens, Greece.
[15] Damodaran, S. (2005). Protein Stabilization of Emulsions and Foams. J. Food Sci., 70, 54-66.
[16] Hardy, Z., & Jideani, V.A. (2017). Foam-mat drying technology: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Sci & Nut., 57, 2560-2572.
[17] Azizpour, M., Mohebbi, M., & Khodaparast, M.H.H. (2016). Effects of foam-mat drying 676 temperature on physico-chemical and microstructural properties of shrimp powder. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., 34, 122-126.
[18] Widyastuti, W., Srianta, I. (2011). Development of functional drink based on foam-mat dried779 Papaya (Carica papaya L.): Optimisation of foam-mat drying process and its ormulation. Int. J. Food Saf. Nutr. Publ. Health., 4, 167-176.
[19] Tavakolipour, H., Sharifi, A., & Salaminia, M. (2011). Determining effective parameters during rhubarb hot air-drying process and the possibility of powder preparation. Iranian J. Food Sci. Technol., 3, 59-67. [In Persian].
[20] Kadam Dattaterya, M., & Blasubramanlan, S. (2010). Foam mat drying of tomato juice, J. Food Process. Preserv., 35, 488-495.
[21] Noshad, M., Hojjati, M., Ghasemi, P., & Mostaan, A. (2020). Optimization and modeling of mass transfer kinetics during foam-mat drying of date syrup. Innov. Food Technol., 4, 535-550. [In Persian].
 [22] Bagheri, A., & Fadaei Noghani, V. (2018). Determination of optimum conditions for spray-drying of peach juice-skim milk blend using response surface method. Innov. Food Technol., 5, 613-626. [In Persian].
[23] Abbasi, E., & Azizpour, M. (2015). Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Foam‒mat Sour Cherry Powder. LWT‒Food Sci. Technol., 68, 105‒110.
[24] Sharada, S. (2013). Studies on Effect of Various Operating Parameters and Foaming agents‒Drying of Fruits and Vegetables. Int. J. Mod. Eng. Res., 3, 1512‒1519.
[25] ISIRI, 2685. (2007). Fruit juices - test methods. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. [In Persian].
[26] Razavi, S. M. A., Cui, S. W., Guo, Q., & Ding, H. (2014). Some physicochemical properties of sage (Salvia macrosiphon) seed gum. Food Hydrocoll., 35,453-462.
[27] Wang, T., Tan, S.Y., Mutilangi, W., Plans, M., & Rodriguez-Saona, L. (2016). Application of infrared portable sensor technology for predicting perceived astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. J. dairy sci., 99, 9461-9470.
[28] ATTRA (National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service). Food Dehydration Options, 2004. URL Accessed 12.07.2020
[29] Liang, Y., & Kristinsson, H.G. (2005). Influence of pH-Induced Unfolding and Refolding of Egg Albumen on Its Foaming Properties. J. Food Sci., 70, 222-230.
[30] Hu, Y., Liang, H., Xu, & Liang, H. (2016). Synergistic effects of small amounts of konjac glucomannan on functional properties of egg white protein, Food Hydrocoll., 52, 213–220.
[31] Dunkwal, V., Jood, S., & Singh, S. (2007). Physico chemical properties and sensory evaluation of Pleurotussajorcaju powder as influenced by pretreatments and drying methods. Br. Food J., 109, 749-759.
[32] Cano-chauca, M., Straingheta, P.C., Sardagna, L.D., & cal-vidal, J. (2004). Mango juice dehydration spraying using different carries and functional chavacterization. In: Proceeding of the 14th Int. Drying Dymposium. (pp. 2005-2012), Saõ Paulo, Brazil.
[33] Koca, N., Erbay, Z., & Kaymak-Ertekin, F. (2015). Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder. J. dairy sci., 98, 2934-2943.
[34] Aghbashlo, M., Kianmehr, M.H., & Samimi-Akhijahani, H. (2008). Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae). Energy Convers. Manag., 49, 2865–2871.
[35] Moniri, H., Farahmandfar, R., & Motamedzadeghan, A. (2020). Investigation of hot air and foam-mat dried cress seed gum by FT-IR, zeta potential, steady shear viscosity, dynamic oscillatory behavior, and other physical properties. Food Sci. Nutri., 8, 2143–2155.
[36] Raharitsifa, N., & Ratti, C. (2010). Foam‐mat freeze‐drying of apple juice part 1: Experimental data and ann simulations. J. Food Process.Eng., 33, 268-283.
[37] Dickinson, E. (2015). Structuring of colloidal particles at interfaces and the
relationship to food emulsion and foam stability. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 449, 38-45.
[38] Paseban, A. (2012). Optimization of process parameters for foam mat drying of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) puree. Mashhad, Iran: Ferdowsi University, Department of Food Engineering. [In Persian].
[39] Marinova, K.G., Basheva, E.S., Nenova, B., Temelska, M., Mirarefi, A.Y., Campbell, B. & Ivanov, I.B. (2009). Physicochemical factors controlling the foamability and foam stability of milk proteins; Sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrates. Food Hydrocoll., 23, 1864-1876.
[40] Martínez-Padilla, L.P., García-Rivera, J.L., Romero-Arreola, V., & Casas-Alencáster, N.B. (2015). Effects of xanthan gum rheology on the foaming properties of whey protein concentrate. J. Food Eng., 156, 22-30.
 [41] Foegeding, E.A., Davis, J.P., Doucet, D., & McGuffey, M. K. (2002). Advances in modifying and understanding whey protein functionality. Trends in Food Sci. Technol., 13(5), 151-159.
[42] Salahi, M.R.; Mohebbi, M.; & Taghizadeh, M.(2015). Foam-mat drying of cantaloupe (Cucumis melo): optimization of foaming parameters and investigating drying characteristics. J. Food Process. Preserv., 39, 1798–1808.
[43] O'Sullivan, J.J., Schmidmeier, C., Drapala, K.P., O'Mahony, J.A., & Kelly, A.L. (2017). Mnitoring of pilot-scale induction processes for dairy powders using inline and offline approaches. J. Food Eng., 197, 9-16.
[44] Kim, E.H.J., Chen, X.D., & Pearce, D. (2002). Surface characterization of four industrial spray-dried dairy powders in relation to chemical composition, structure and wetting property. Colloids Surf. B., 26, 197-212.
[45] Bragadottir, M., Reynisson, E., Porarinsdottir, K.A., & Arason, S. )2007(. Stability of fish powder made from saithe (Pollachius virens) as measured by lipid oxidation and functional properties. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol., 16, 115-136.
[46] Damodaran, S., & Parkin, K. (2017). Fennema's Food Chemistry, (5th ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
[47] Wilson, R.A., Dattatreya, M.K., Chadha, S., Grewal, M.K., & Sharma, M.(2014). Evaluation of physical and chemical properties of foam-mat dried mango (Mangifera indica) powder during storage. J. Food Process. Preserv., 38, 1866– 1874.
[48] Franco, T.S ., Perussello, C.A., Ellendersen, L.N., & Masson, M.L. (2016).Effects of foam mat drying on physicochemical and microstructural
properties of yacon juice powder. LWT- Food Sci. Technol., 66,503–513.
 [49] Harmayani, E., Winari, S., & Nuvismanto, R. (2011). Preparation of Inulin Powder from Dioscorea Esculenta Tuber with foam Mat Drying Method. In: Proceeding of the 12th ASEAN Food Conference. Bangkok, Thailand.
[50] Chun, K.P.; Nazimah, S.A.H.; Chin, P.T.; Mirhosseini, H.; Russly, A.R.; & Gulam, R. (2010). Optimization of drum drying processing parameters for production of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) powder using response surface methodology. LWT-
Food Sci. Technol., 43, 343–349.
[51] Zotarelli, M.F., da Silva, V.M., Durigon, A., Hubinger, M.D., & Laurindo, J.B., (2017). Production of mango powder by spray drying and cast-tape drying. Powder Technol., 305, 447-454.
[52] Khalilian, S., Shahidi, F., Mohebi, M., & Khalilian, M. (2013). Evaluation of drying conditions on several characteristics of foam-mat pomegranate concentrate powder. In: proceeding of the 21th Natl. Cong. Food Sci. Technol., Shiraz, Iran. [In Persian].
[53] Walton, D.E. (2000). The morphology of spray-dried particles, a qualitative view. Dry. Technol., 18, 1943– 1986.
[54] Sangamithra, A., Venkatachalam, S., Gabriela, S., & Kuppuswamy, K. (2015). Foam mat drying of food materials: a Review. J. Food Process. Preserv., 39, 3165–3174.
[55] Jangam, S.V., Law, C.L., & Mujumdar, A.S. (2010). Drying of food, vegetables and fruits (1st ed.). Singapore: TPR Group.
[56] Filippove M.P. (1992). Practical infrared spectroscopy of pectin substance. Food Hydrocoll., 6, 115-142.
 [57] Mousavi S.E., Mousavi, M., & Kiani, H. (2020). Characterization and identification of sediment forming agents in barberry juice. Food Chem., 312,126056.
[58] Coates, J. (2006). Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. In: R.A. Meyers (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry (2nd ed., pp. 1-23). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[59] Rafe, A., & Razavi, S.M.A. (2015). Effect of thermal treatment on chemical structure of β-lactoglobulin and basil seed gum mixture at different states by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Int. J. Food Prop., 18, 2652–2664.
[60] Kato. A., & Takagi, T. (1988). Formation of intermolecular. beta. -sheet structure during heat denaturation of ovalbumin. J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 1156-1159.
[61] Bakkialakshmi, S., & Barani, V. (2013). FTIR study on the interaction of quercetin and amantadine with egg albumin. Inter. J. Pharm. Chem. Bio. Sci., 3, 559-64.
[62] Naji-Tabasi, S., Razavi, S. M. A., Mohebbi, M., & Malaekeh-Nikouei, B. (2016). New studies on basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.) seed gum: Part I-Fractionation, physicochemical and surface activity characterization. Food Hydrocoll., 52, 350–358.