Intelligent Modeling of Bread texture Acoustic Measurement Method and Artificial Neural Network (Case Study: Enriched Bread with Chia)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Iran

2 Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology, Khuzestan Ramin University of Agricultural & Natural Resources, Mollasani, Iran

3 Assistant professor of Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University

4 Food Science and Technology, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan


The purpose of this study is to model the bread texture by acoustical- mechanical method, non- destructively. To do so, bread texture enriched with 3 different levels of modified chia (2.5%, 5% and 7.5%) was evaluated by texture analyzer at a test speed of 3 mm. s-1 to 30% compression, while the microphone was located at 5 cm from the samples at a 45° angle to the horizon. From the sound recorded during loading mean sound intensity, maximum of sound, variance, standard deviation, root mean absolute value, root mean square value, skewness, kurtosis, fifth moment, sixth moment, energy, entropy in time domain, and spectral entropy and natural frequency in the frequency domain were extracted. After selecting the most suitable features (maximum sound, variance, standard deviation, root mean absolute value, energy, entropy and natural frequency), based on statistical analysis, artificial neural network with 3 algorithms ( Marquardt, scaled conjugate gradient, gradient descent) was trained and tested with 7 neurons in the input layer (in accordance with the selected features) and 3 neurons in the output layer (hardness, gumminess, chewiness). Based on the results, the training error in the Levenberg - Marquardt algorithm was lower than the other algorithms, and the root mean squared error of the test stage of this algorithm to predict hardness, gumminess and chewiness were 0.14, 0.23, and 0.33, respectively. This shows the ability of the proposed method in predicting the quality of bread.

Graphical Abstract

Intelligent Modeling of Bread texture Acoustic Measurement Method and Artificial Neural Network (Case Study: Enriched Bread with Chia)


  • Chia seed modification by roasting method.
  • Determination of bread quality enriched with modified chia flour using acoustical-mechanical testing method during storage.
  • Three different learning algorithms (Levenberg-Marquardt, scaled conjugate gradient, gradient descent) were used to train artificial neural network.  
  • Levenberg-Marquardt (the best learning algorithm) predicted hardness, chewiness and gumminess with (R2 = 0.97), (R2 = 0.95) and (R2 = 0.93), respectively.


Main Subjects

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Volume 7, Issue 4
August 2020
Pages 517-534
  • Receive Date: 28 July 2019
  • Revise Date: 07 October 2019
  • Accept Date: 14 June 2020
  • First Publish Date: 22 July 2020