Effect of process conditions and formulation on physicochemical and functional properties of textured fiber supplement (tomato pomace-rice bran)

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD. Student, Department of Food Science& Technology, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Processing, Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Food Science& Technology, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran


The food industry generate large amount of wastes annually around the world Food wastes are excellent source of nutritional compounds such as proteins, dietary fibers, antioxidants, and several types of micronutrients Therefore management of recycling food by-products is more valuable with maximum efficiency, in order to manufacture added value and low cost food products. Recently the processing of various types of by- products by extrusion cooking technology has been considered as a high- efficiency process. In this project, the rotatable central composite design was used to investigate the effects of formulation variables containing tomato pomace : rice bran ratio (25: 75-75: 25% w/w), feed moisture content (12-18%) and extrusion conditions including screw speed (120-160rpm) on functional and physicochemical properties of extruded fiber supplement from (tomato pomace- rice bran) including ( oil absorption index, bulk density, color indexes (L،* a*,b*) , antioxidant activity and water activity (aW)). The results showed that properties of extrudates were affected by formulation and extrusion conditions. Enhancement of screw speed increased oil absorption index The addition of fiber supplement increased the color indexes(a*,b*) whereas lightness (L*) and bulk density decreased. Increasing screw speed and moisture content caused a decrease in the antioxidant activity. By increasing moisture content and tomato pomace increased water activity (aW) of extruded products. According to optimization results, to provide a modified fiber supplement for application in dietary foods optimum condition was found to be the tomato pomace : rice bran ratio of (25: 75% w/w), screw speed of (137/63 rpm) and moisture content of (13/26%) that required to obtain oil absorption index (2/60g/g) , bulk density (0/6g/cm3) , lightness (L*)(57/18) , antioxidant activity (35/14) and water activity (aW)(0/17).

Graphical Abstract

Effect of process conditions and formulation on physicochemical and functional properties of textured fiber supplement (tomato pomace-rice bran)


  • Food byproducts are excellent source of nutritional compounds such as proteins, dietary fibers, antioxidants, and several types of micronutrients
  • Most of these byproducts are inappropriately disposed causing environmental issues.
  • It is vital to reuse industrial byproducts in order to manufacture added value and low cost food supplements.
  • Extrusion is an important process to eliminate microbial contamination and improve the technological and functional properties of fiber supplements from Food by products in industrial scale and high efficiency.
  • The blend proportions under optimum extrusion conditions had improved nutritional quality with tomato pomace: rice bran ratio 25: 75% w/w, screw speed 137.63 rpm and moisture content 13/26%.


Main Subjects

[1] Devries, J.W., Prosky, L., Li, B., & Cho, S. (1999). A historical perspective on dietary fiber. Cereal Food world. 44, 367-369.
[2] Manilal, P.P. (2005). Super critical fluid extraction of rice bran with adsorption on rice hull ash. Thesis of Master of Science of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical college.1-170.
[3] Hosensy, R.C. (1998). Principles of Cereals Sciences and Technology. AACC, St Paul, M.N.
[4] Guy, R. (2001). Extrusion cooking trchnologies and application. Florida, Wood head Publication. 50-100.
[5] Rashid, S. (2015). Effect of extrusion cooking on the dietary fibre content and water solubility Index of wheat bran extrudates. Food Sci. Tech., 50, 1533-1537.
[6] Huang, Y., and Ma, Y. (2016). The of effect extrusion processing on the physicochemical properties of extruded orange pomace. Food chem., 192, 363- 369.
[7] Dust, J.M., Gajda, A.M., Flickinger, E.A., Burkhalter, T.M., Merchen, N.R., Fahey, G.C. (2004) .Extrusion conditions affect chemical composition and in vitro digestion of select food ingredients. J. Ag.Food chem., 52(10), 2989-2996.
 [8] Charunuch, C., Limsangouan, N., Prasert, W.and Wongkrajang, K. (2014). Optimization of extrusion conditions for ready- to- eat breakfast cereal enhanced with defatted rice bran. Food Res Int., 21(2), 713-722.
[9] Dhungana, P., Chauhan, A.and Sing, S. (2014) .Evaluation of extrudate from sweetpotato flour and tomato pomace blend by extrusion processing. J. Food Science. 8(5), 246-277.
[10] Kim, C.J., Byun, S.M., Cheigh, H.S. and Kwon, T.W. (1987). Optimization of Extrusion Rice bran stabilization process. 52(5), 1355- 1357.
[11] Parvaneh, V. (1990). Quality Control & the Chemical Analysis of Food, Published by University of Tehran, 85-128.
[12] AOAC. (2000) .Official methods of analyses.Association of Official Analycal Chemists, Washington, DC.
[13] American Association of cereal Chemist. (2000). Approved Methods of the AACC (10th Ed). The Association, S.Paul, MN.
[14] Prosky, L., Asp, N.G., Scheweizer, T.F., Devaries, J.W., & Furda, I. (1988). Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fibre in foods and food products: Interlaboratory study. J.AoAc. 71, 1017-1023.
 [15] Selan, M.M., Brazaca, S. (2014). Characterisation and potential application of pinapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement. Food Chem. 163, 23-30.
[16] Potter, R., Stojceska, V., Plunkett, A. (2013). The use of fruit powders in extruded snacks suitable for children’s diets. Food sci.Tech; 51(2), 537-544.
[17] Lazou, A., Krokida, M. (2010). Functional properties of corn and con-lentil extrudates. Food Res.Int. 43(2), 609-616.
[18] Prakongpan, T., Nitithamyong, A., Luangpituksa. P. (2002). Extraction and Application of Dietary Fiber and Cellulose from Pineapple Cores. Food Chem., 67, 1308 – 1313.
[19] Mesquita, C.B., Leonel, M., Mishan, M.M. (2013). Effect of processing on physical properties of extruded snacks with blends of sour cassava starch and flaxseed flour.Food sci.Tech. 33(3), 404-410.
[20] Chen, C.W., and Ho, C.T. (1995). Antioxidant properties of polyphenols extracted from green and black teas, Food Lipids., 2, 35-46.
[21] Roa, V., De Daza, M.S.T. (1991). Evaluation of water activity measurement with a dew point electronic humidity meter. Lebensm Wiss Technol, 24, 208-213.
[22] Salehifar, M., Fadaei, V. (2011). Composition of some functional properties and chemical contituents of dietary fiber of Iranian rice bran extracted by chemical and enzymatic methods. Afri.J. Biotechnoly., 10(80), 18528-18531.
[23] Sanders, T.A.B., and S.Reddy. (1992). the influence of rice bran on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in human volunteers. Eur.J.Clin.Nurt. 46,167-172.
[24] Houston, D.F. and Kohler, G.O. (1970). Nutritional properties of rice. National Acadamy of Science.USA, Washangton, DC, P.65.
[25] Ammisah, J.G.N., Ellis, W.O., Oduro.I.and Manful, J.T. (2003). Nutrient composition of bran from new rice varieties under study in Ghana. Food control. 14, 21-24.
[26] Bhattacharya, K.R. (1988). Rice Bran: Regional Extension Service centre (Rice Milling) Scientific Series No.7.CFTRI, Mysore 570013.
[27] Kahlon, T.S., Saunders, R.M., Chow, F.I., and Betschart, A.A. (1990). Influence of rice bran, oat bran and wheat bran on cholesterol and triglycerides in hamsters. Cereal chem., 67,439-443.
[28] Del Valle, M., Camara, M, and Torija, M.E. (2006). Chemical characterization of tomato pomace. J. Agr. Food Chem., 86, 1232-1236.
[29] Isik, F. and Topkaya, C. (2016). Effects of tomato pomacesupplementation on chemical and nutritional properties of crackers. Ital. J. Food Sci., 28, 525-535.
[30] Silva, Y.P.A., Borba, B.C., Reis, M.G., Caliari, M., Ferreira, T.A.P.C. 2016. Tomato industrial waste as potential source of nutrieents.Nutrition Science Conference. 22-25.
[31] Caprez, A., Arrigoni, E., Amado, R., and Zeukom, H. (1986). Influence of different types of thermal treat Ment on the chemical composition and physical properties of wheat bran. J.cereal Sci., 4, 233-239.
[32] Fleury, N., and Lahaye, M. (1991). Chemical and physic-chemical charactrisation of fibres from Lamiaria digitata (Kombu Breton): A physiological approach. J.Sci. Food Agric., 55, 389-400.
[33] Omohimi, C.I., Sobukola, O.P., Sarafadeen, K.O., Sanni, L.O. (2013). Effect of process parameters on the proximate composition, functional & sensory properties, WASET. 7 (4), 540-549.
[34] Siddiq, M., Ravi, R., Harte, J.B. and Dolan, K.D. (2010). Physical & functional characteristics of selected dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) flour, Food Sci. Tech., 43, 232-237.
[35] Carvalho, A.F.U., Portela, M.C.C, Sousa, M.B. (2009). Physiological and physicochemical characterization of dietary fiber from the green seaweed ULva fasciata Delile, Braz j Bio. 69(3), 969-977.
[36] Zapotoczny, P., Markowski, M., Majewska, K., Ratajski, A., and Konopko, H. (2006). Effect of temperature on the physical, functional and mechanical characteristics of hot-air-puffed amaranth seeds. J.Food Eng., 76, 469-476.
[37] Nelson, A. (2001). Defining high-fiber ingredient terminology.High-Fiber Ingredients. 1-83
[38] Ralet, M.C., Della Valle, G & Thibault, J.F. (1993). Raw and extruded fiber from pea hulls. Part1: Composition and physicochemical properties.Carbohydr Polym. 20, 17-23.
[39] Cespedes, M.A.L., Bustos, F.M., Chang, Y. (2010). The Effect of Extruded Orange Pulp on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Starch and Glucose Retardation Index. Food Bioprocess Technol., 3, 684-692.
 [40] Onimawo, I.A. and Egbekun, N.M. (1998). Comrehensive food science and nutrition.Benin city: Ambik press revised.Ed.In chandi, G.K.and Sogi, K.D. (2007). Functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates. J.Food Eng., 79, 592-597.
[41] Yagci, S., Gogus, F. (2008). Response surface methodology for evaluation of physical and functional properties of extruded snack foods developed from food- by- products. J.Food Eng., 86, 122-132.
[42] Io, S.and Berghofer, E. (1999) .Kinetics of colour changes during extrusion cooking of maize grits. J.Food Eng., 39(1), 37-80.
[43] Ding, Q-B., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Tucker, G., Marson, H. (2005). The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks. J.Food Eng., 66,283-289.
[44] Kim, C.H. and Maga, J.A. (1987). Properties of extruded whey protein concentrate and cereal flour blends. J. Food Sci. Technol., 20,311-318.
[45] Io, S., Tomschik, U., Berghofer, E. and Mundigler, N. (1996). The effect of extrusion operating conditions on the apparent viscosity and the properties of extrudeds in twin-screw extrusion cooking of maize grits. J. Food Sci. Technol., 29,593-598.
[46] Bhattacharya, S. and Prakash, M. (1994). Extrusion of blends of rice and chick pea flours: A response surface analysis. J.Food Eng., 21(3), 315-330.
[47] Rouilly, A., Jord, J., Rigal, L. (2006). Thermo- mechanical processing of suger beet pulp. Carbohydr Polym., 66, 81-87.
[48] Nikmaram, N., Garavand, F., Elhamirad, A.H., Beiraghi-toosi, Sh., Goli-Movahhed, G.A. (2015). Production of high quality expanded corn extrudates containing sesame seed using response surface methodology. QUAL ASSUR SAF CROP., 7 (5), 713-720.
[49] Kaur, S., Sharma, S., Singh, B., Dar, B.N. (2013). Effect of extrusion variables (temperature, moisture) on the antinutrient components of cereal brans. J Food Sci Technol., 52(3), 1670-1676.
[50] Liu, Y., Hsieh, F., Heymann, H., Huff, H.E. (2000). Effect of process conditions on the physical and sensory properties of extruded oat-corn puff. J.Food Sci., 65, 1253-1259.
[51] Altan, A., Mccarthy, K.L., and Maskan, M. (2008). Evaluation of snack foods from barley- tomato pomace blends by extrusion processing. J.Food Eng., 84(2), 231-242.
[52] Okba, M.A., Abdelrasol, E.A.and Gomaa, M.A. (2014). Production of snacks digestibility protein from barley.and Tomato wastes. J.Food and Dairy Sci., 5(2), 139-151.
[53] Kim, Y., Kim, W. Kim, D.O., Kim,H.Y., Kim, H.Y., Kim, B.Y., Baik, M.Y.& Lee, H. (2015) . Effects of Moisture Content and Puffing Pressure on Extraction Yield and Antioxidant Activity of Puffed 21-year-old Platycodon grandiflorum Roots. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 24(4), 1293-1299.
[54] Bisharat, G.I., Elen, P.N., Panagiotou, N.M., Krokida, M.K .and Maroulis, Z.B. (2014). Thermal, textural, and physicochemical analysis of corn extrudates eniched with broccoli or olive paste, Int J Food Prop., 17(9), 2100-2116.
[55] Wang, T., He, F. and Chena, G. (2014). Improving bio accessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in cereal grains through processing technologies: A concise review. J.Funct.Foods. 7,101-111.
[56] Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, R., Pena, J., Kallio, H. and Salminen, S. (2009). Dietary fiber and other functional components in two varities of crude and extruded kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus), J.Cereal Sci., 49, 219-222.
[57] Sensoy I., Rosen R.T., Ho C.-T., Karwe M.V. (2006). Effect of processing on buckwheat phenolics and antioxidant activity. Food Chem., 99, 388-393.
[58] Jangam, S.V. and Mujumdar, A.S. (2010). Basic concepts and definition. In: S.V. Jangam, C.L. Law, A.S. Mujumdar (Eds.), Drying of Foods, Vegetables and Fruits, vol.1, ISBN - 978- 981-08-6759.
[59] Jenson, P.N. and Risbo, J. (2007). Oxidative stability of snack and cereal products in relation to moisture sorption, Food Chem., 103(3), 717-724.
[60] Fallahi, P., Muthukumarappan, K., Rosentrater, K.A. and Brown, M.L. (2012). Twin-screw extrusion processing of vegetable-based protein feeds for yellow perch (perca flavescens) containing distillers dried grains, soy protein concentrate, and fermented high protein soybean meal, J.Food. Res., 1(3)230.
[61] Foley, J.J., and Rosentrater, K.A. (2013). Physical properties of extruded corn coproducts, AN ASABE Meeting Presentation.Paper Number: 131594705.
[62] O She, N.Arent, E. and Gallagher, E. (2013). Enhancing an extruded puffed snack by optimizing die head temperature, screw speed and apple pomace inclusion, Food Bioproc Tech., 7, 1767-1782.