Important Iranian pistachio kernel cultivars infra red roasting optimization by RSM

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Student in Food Science & Technology department of Agriculture Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor in food physics and Engineering in Department of Food Science& Technology , Agriculture Faculty , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

3 Professor in Food Engineering, Food Science and Technology Faculty, Gorgan Agriculture University , Gorgan

4 Assistant Professor in food science and technology, Food Science and Technology department, Iranian Pistachio Research institute, Rafsanjan, Iran

5 Professor in Pure Chemistry , Sciense Department, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.


The aim of this study was investigation optimum conditions of four Iranian commercial pistachio kernels (Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei, Akbari and Kale Ghoochi cultivars) infrared roasting. The roasting process was optimized by response surface methodology. Optimization was done by central composite design for every cultivar separately. The independent variables were infrared lamp voltage (V) and sample-lamp distance (m). The responses were chosen based on different aspects of quality factors: texture, color, taste, and time of roasting. For texture, the first and second fracture point; for color, browning index (BI); for taste, roasting taste; and for time, the roasting time to 2% moisture samples. The samples first fracture point were in range 20-40/5 N, second fracture point were in range 37-55 N, browning index were in range 38-41, roasting taste score were in range 4-9/12, and roasting time were in range 127- 746 S, in the optimum points. A full quadratic model was fitted for responses by considering trial and error. The fitted model was significant based on ANOVA and R2. At last, results shown optimized points were different for every cultivar. The fitted model and experimental responses had a good correlation ( P ≤ 0.05). Considering final products quality, it seems that pistachio kernels IR roasting can be a useful method to pistachio nut kernel roasting and can reduce the process time, at least 50%.

Graphical Abstract

Important Iranian pistachio kernel cultivars infra red roasting optimization by RSM


  • Pistachio roasting process was studied and optimized for the first time.
  • Roasting optimum conditions were determined by considering textural and sensory features, browning index, and process time.
  • Optimum conditions for Fandoghi, Ahmad-Aghaei, Kalle-Ghouchi, and Akbari cultivars determined as 70V-0.1m, 90V-0.1m, 90V-0.05m, and 90V-0.1m, respectively.
  • The roasting process times were reduced by 50% and desirability between predictions and experimental results were in the range of 0.83-0.95.
  • In IR-roasting process, the correlations between thickness and the responses were found to be in the range of 0.92-0.99.


Main Subjects

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