Effect of gums on dynamic rheology of instant camel yogurt: Optimization using mixture design and Firefly Algorithm

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Student, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM),

2 Professor in food physics and Engineering in Department of Food Science& Technology , Agriculture Faculty , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran


In this paper, the effect of carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), konjac gum (KG) and sage seed gum (SSG) and their mixtures on dynamic rheological properties of the instant camel yogurt samples were investigated, Then, these properties were optimized using mixture design models and firefly algorithm. The results of the stress sweep tests for different samples showed that the elastic modulus (G ') values were greater than viscous modulus (G') indicating behavior essentially like that of solids. Results showed the synergistic effect of these three gums, especially the synergistic effect of SSG and CMC on the critical strain and the yield stress of instant camel yogurt samples. Frequency sweep test results showed that samples had a typical weak gel-like structure behavior at any given frequency and complex viscosity (*) had a linear correlation with frequency. SSG had the most positive effect on k’, k" and k* but the combination with CMC and KG could also improve this effect. All the linear terms in the predicted models for the n’, n" and n* parameters were insignificant (P

Graphical Abstract

Effect of gums on dynamic rheology of instant camel yogurt: Optimization using mixture design and Firefly Algorithm


  • Instant camel yogurt was produced by the spraying of fresh camel yogurt and its mixture with different gums.
  • The effect of carboxyl methyl cellulose, konjac gum and sage seed gum on the dynamic rheological properties of the instant camel yogurt was investigated.
  • Instant camel yogurt formulation was optimized using firefly algorithm.
  • Sage seed gum as a novel source of hydrocolloid could act very capable and produces desirable properties in instant camel yogurt.


Main Subjects

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