Evaluation effect of extrusion on properties of extrudate grass pea (lathyrus sativus)

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc student of food science and technology, Agricultural faculty, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad

2 Associate professor, Agricultural faculty, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad

3 Professor, Agricultural faculty, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad

4 Assistant professor, faculty member of academic Center for Education Culture and Research, Mashhad


Grass pea is rich protein whereas it not consumed widely. Grass pea has same nutritional value with Clover, Alfalfa, Sainfoin and other forage plants which it has 12-22% protein. Extrusion cooking changes properties of Grass pea. Therefore, extruded Grass pea could use independently or as alternative in various formulations. The objective of this study was to apply response surface methodology by Design expert software to estimate the physicochemical and sensory properties of grass pea extrudate and to evaluate of the extrusion process include feed moisture (12-20%), die temperature (120-160°C) and screw speed (120-180 rpm) on properties of extruded Grass pea ( porosity, hardness, sensory properties) and its flour ( color, oil absorbtion index) were evaluated. By increasing feed moisture hardness increased and porosity, lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), redness (a*), oil absorption index and overall acceptability of extruded Grass pea decreased. Increasing die temperature increased redness, oil absorption index of extruded Grass pea whereas hardness, yellowness and overall acceptability of extruded Green pea decreased. Increasing screw speed increased redness, oil absorption index and overall acceptability of extruded Grass pea whereas hardness and yellowness decreased. Process conditions to produce best porosity, texture, color, oil absorption and overall acceptability were 12% moisture content, 137 ° C temperature and 137 rpm screw speed. In this condition, the best porosity, hardness, color, highest and lowest amounts of oil absorption will be obtain.


Main Subjects

[1] Ravindran, G., Carr, A., Hardacre, A. (2011). A comparative study of the effects of three galactomannans on the functionality of extruded pea–rice blends. Food Chem., 124(4), 1620-1626.
[2] Tiwari, B.K., Gowen, A. McKenna, B. eds. (2011). Pulse foods: Processing, quality and nutraceutical applications. Academic Press. 214-216
[3] Nayak, B., Berrios, J.D.J., Powers, J.R., Tang, J. (2011). Effect of extrusion on the antioxidant capacity and color attributes of expanded extrudates prepared from purple potato and yellow pea flour mixes. J Food Sci., 76(6), C874-C883.
[4] Qayyum, M.M.N., Butt, M.S., Anjum, F.M., Nawaz, H. (2012). Composition analysis of some selected legumes for protein isolates recovery. J Anim  Plant Sci., 22(4). 222-242
[5] Simons, C.W., Hall, C., Tulbek, M., Mendis, M., Heck, T., Ogunyemi, S., (2014). Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans. J Sci Food Agr.
[6] Rathod, R.P., Annapure, U.S. (2016). Effect of extrusion process on antinutritional factors and protein and starch digestibility of lentil splits. LWT-Food Sci Technol., 66, 114-123.
[7] Alonso, R., Orue, E., Marzo, F. (1998). Effects of extrusion and conventional processing methods on protein and antinutritional factor contents in pea seeds. Food Chem., 63(4), 505-512.
[8] Osen, R., Toelstede, S., Wild, F., Eisner, P., Schweiggert-Weisz, U. (2014). High moisture extrusion cooking of pea protein isolates: Raw material characteristics, extruder responses, and texture properties. J Food Eng., 127, 67-74.
[9] Ravindran, G., Carr, A., Hardacre, A. (2011). A comparative study of the effects of three galactomannans on the functionality of extruded pea–rice blends. Food Chem., 124(4), 1620-1626.
[10] Kasprzak, M., Rzedzicki, Z. (2008). Application of everlasting pea wholemeal in extrusion-cooking technology. Int. Agrophys, 22, 339-347.
 [11] Meng, X., Threinen, D., Hansen, M., Driedger, D. (2010). Effects of extrusion conditions on system parameters and physical properties of a chickpea flour-based snack. Food Res Int, 43(2): 650-658.
[12] Hood-Niefer, S. D., Tyler, R. T. (2010). Effect of protein, moisture content and barrel temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of pea flour extrudates. Food Res Int, 43(2): 659-663.
 [13] Osen, R., Toelstede, S., Eisner, P., Schweiggert‐Weisz, U. (2015). Effect of high moisture extrusion cooking on protein–protein interactions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) protein isolates. Int J Food Sci Tech, 50(6): 1390-1396.
[14] Dandamrongrak, R., Young, G., Senadeera, W. (2011). Experimental investigation on extruded snack products from rice and mung bean: Optimization of parameters. In Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Drying Conference, 1-5.
[15] Suksomboon, A., Limroongreungrat, K., Sangnark, A., Thititumjariya, K.., Noomhorm, A. (2011). Effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties of a snack made from purple rice (Hom Nil) and soybean flour blend. Int J Food Sci Tech, 46(1): 201-208.
[16] AACC. (2000). Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists. 10th ed. St. Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists.
[17] Yağcı, S., Göğüş, F. (2008). Response surface methodology for evaluation of physical and functional properties of extruded snack foods developed from food-by-products. J Food Eng., 86(1), 122-132.
[18] Lazou, A., Krokida, M. (2010). Structural and textural characterization of corn–lentil extruded snacks. J Food Eng, 100(3): 392-408
[19] Bourne, M.C. (2002). Food Texture and Viscosity: Concept and measurement. Academic Press, 2thed. New York, 50-70.
[20] Siddiq, M., Kelkar, S., Harte, J.B., Dolan, K.D., Nyombaire, G. (2013). Functional properties of flour from low-temperature extruded navy and pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). LWT-Food Sci Technol., 50(1), 215-219.
[21] Maninder, K., Sandhu, K.S., Singh, N. (2007). Comparative study of the functional, thermal and pasting properties of flours from different field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) cultivars. Food Chem., 104(1), 259-267.
[22] Giannini, A.N., Krokida, M.K., Bisharat, G.I., (2013). Structural properties of corn-based extrudates enriched with plant fibers. Int J Food Prop., 16(3), 667-683.
[23] Altan, A., McCarthy, K. L., Maskan, M. (2008). Evaluation of snack foods from barley-tomato pomace blends by extrusion processing. J Food Eng, 84(2), 231–242.
[24] Ding, Q.-B., Ainsworth, P. Plonkell, A. Tucker, G., Marson, H. (2005). The effect of extrusion on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice based expanded snacks. J Food Eng., 66, 283-289.
[25] Ding, Q. B., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Tucker, G., Marson, H. (2006). The effect of extrusion conditions on the functional and physical properties of wheat-based expanded snacks. J Food Eng., 73(2), 142-148.
[26] Bhattacharya, S. (1997). Twin-screw extrusion of rice-green gram blend: Extrusion and extrudate characteristics. J Food Eng., 32(1), 83–99.
[27] Liu, Y., Hsieh, E., Heymann, H., Huff, H. E. (2000). Effect of process conditions on the physical and sensory properties of extruded oat-corn puff. J Food Sci.  65(7), 1253–1259.
[28] Estrada-Girón, Y., Aguilar, J., Morales-del Rio, J.A., Valencia-Botin, A.J., Guerrero-Beltrán, J.A., Martínez-Preciado, A.H., Macías, E.R., Soltero, J.F.A., Solorza-Feria, J., Fernández, V.V.A. (2014). Effect of moisture content and temperature, on the rheological, microstructural and thermal properties of masa (dough) from a hybrid corn (Zea mays sp.) variety. Rev Mex Ing Quim., 13(2), 429-446.
[29] Drago, S.R., Velasco-González, O.H., Torres, R.L., González, R.J., Valencia, M.E. (2007). Effect of the extrusion on functional properties and mineral dialyzability from Phaseolus vulgaris bean flour. Plant Food Hum Nutr, 62(2), 43-48.
[30] Gujska, E., Khan, K. (1990). Effect of temperature on properties of extrudates from high starch fractions of navy, pinto and garbanzo beans. J Food Sci., 55, 466-469.
[31] Kadan, R.S., Bryant, R.J., Pepperman, A.B. (2003). Functional properties of extruded rice flours. J Food Sci.,  68(5), 1669-1672.