Experimental investigation of droplet rising behavior of edible olive and canola oils in the presence of a food stabilizer

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran


Today, with the dramatic increase in the use of food industries in daily life, investigating the hydrodynamic behavior of different types of oils in the presence of food stabilizers has become very important. In the present study, the behavior of two drops of olive oil and rapeseed oil in a still fluid containing Tween 80 surfactant was investigated in a laboratory. In order to inject an oil drop into the fluid, an injection needle with a diameter of 0.9 mm was used, and the equivalent diameter of the drop was about 4 mm. At first, the results and calculations were validated by measuring the movement speed of the droplet limit in pure water fluid, then the effect of stabilizer concentration on the drop equivalent diameter, its limit speed and the dependence of the drag coefficient on the Reynolds number in each of the oils were investigated separately. The results showed that the presence of surfactant does not have a significant effect on the equivalent diameter of the drop, and with the increase in surfactant concentration, the equivalent diameter remains constant at about 4 mm. Also, due to the fact that all concentrations are above the critical concentration of micelles, in the presence of surfactant, the rate did not change significantly. In addition, the results related to the dependence of the drag coefficient on the dimensionless Reynolds number were reported, which showed that as the Reynolds number increases, the drag coefficient decreases gradually. In general, it can be concluded that the concentration of surfactant and the type of oil do not determine the droplet size. Also, if there is a need to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance in similar systems, increasing the Reynolds number can be a suggested solution.

Graphical Abstract

Experimental investigation of droplet rising behavior of edible olive and canola oils in the presence of a food stabilizer


  • Experimental investigation of the hydrodynamic behavior of an edible oil drop in a static fluid containing Tween 80
  • Comparison of the behavior of olive oil and canola oil in the same operational conditions
  • Investigating the effect of stabilizer concentration on the drop equivalent diameter
  • Examining the dependence of the drag coefficient on the Reynolds number in each of the oils


Main Subjects

[1] Karimi, S., Abiri, A. & Shafiee, M. (2022). Experimental study of the passage of canola oil and olive oil droplets between the water-oil interfaces. J. Food Bio. Eng, 5, 16-23.
[2] Pekkarinen, S., Hopia, A. & Heinonen, M. (1998). Effect of processing on the oxidative stability of low erucic acid turnip rapeseed (Brassica rapa) oil. Lipid Fett, 100, 69-74.
[3] Gunstone FD, Harwood JL & FB, P. (1994). Occurrence and characteristics. In: Gunstone FD, Harwood JL, Padley FB (eds) The lipid handbook, Chapman, London. 47-223.
[4] Koski, A., Psomiadou, E., Tsimidou, M., Hopia, A., Kefalas, P., Wähälä, K. & Heinonen, M. (2002). Oxidative stability and minor constituents of virgin olive oil and cold-pressed rapeseed oil. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 214, 294-298.
[5] Yang, T., Liu, T.-X., Li, X.-T. & Tang, C.-H. (2019). Novel nanoparticles from insoluble soybean polysaccharides of Okara as unique Pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocoll., 94, 255-267.
[6] Harman, C. L., Patel, M. A., Guldin, S. & Davies, G.-L. (2019). Recent developments in Pickering emulsions for biomedical applications. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 39, 173-189.
[7] Jafari, S. M., He, Y. & Bhandari, B. (2007). Effectiveness of encapsulating biopolymers to produce sub-micron emulsions by high energy emulsification techniques. Food Res. Int., 40, 862-873.
[8] Kim, H.-J., Decker, E. A. & McClements, D. J. (2006). Preparation of multiple emulsions based on thermodynamic incompatibility of heat-denatured whey protein and pectin solutions. Food Hydrocoll., 20, 586-595.
[9] McClements, D. J. (2004). Food emulsions: principles, practices, and techniques(CRC press Publisher, Place:Published.
[10] Perrier-Cornet, J., Marie, P. & Gervais, P. (2005). Comparison of emulsification efficiency of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using jet, high pressure and colloid mill homogenization. J. Food Eng., 66, 211-217.
[11] Clift, R., Grace, J. & Weber, M. (1978). Bubbles, Drops and Particles, Academic Press, New York.
[12] Jamialahmadi, M. & Müller-Steinhagen, H. (1992). Effect of alcohol, organic acid and potassium chloride concentration on bubble size, bubble rise velocity and gas hold-up in bubble columns. Chem. Eng. J., 50, 47-56.
[13] Kracht, W. & Finch, J. (2010). Effect of frother on initial bubble shape and velocity. Int. J. Miner. Process., 94, 115-120.
[14] Sattari, A. & Hanafizadeh, P. (2019). Bubble formation on submerged micrometer-sized nozzles in polymer solutions: An experimental investigation. Colloids Surf., A, 564, 10-22.
[15] Pierre, J., Poujol, M. & Séon, T. (2022). Influence of surfactant concentration on drop production by bubble bursting. Phys. Rev. Fluids, 7, 073602.
[16] Constante-Amores, C., Batchvarov, A., Kahouadji, L., Shin, S., Chergui, J., Juric, D. & Matar, O. (2021). Role of surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses in drop-interface coalescence. J. Fluid Mech., 925, A15.
[17] Karimi, S., Abiri, A., Shafiee, M., Abbasi, H. & Ghadam, F. (2021). New Correlations for the Prediction of Terminal Velocity and Drag Coefficient of a Bubble Rising. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. - Trans. Mech. Eng., 22, 71-87.
[18] Karimi, S., Shafiee, M., Abiri, A. & Ghadam, F. (2019). The drag coefficient prediction of a rising bubble through a non-Newtonian fluid. Amir kabir J. Mech. Eng., 52, 863-880. [ In Persian].
[19] Karimi, S., Abiri, A., Shafiee, M. & Mohamadzadeh, N. (2022). Experimental Study on a Rising Oil Droplet through a Water-Oil Interface. J. Mech. Eng., 51, 361-368. [In Persian]
[20] Deng, C., Huang, W., Wang, H., Cheng, S., He, X. & Xu, B. (2018). Preparation of micron-sized droplets and their hydrodynamic behavior in quiescent water. Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 35, 709-720.
[21] Frumkin, A. (1947). On surfactants and interfacial motion. Zh. Fiz. Khim., 21, 1183-1204.
[22] Dubois, V., Breton, S., Linder, M., Fanni, J. & Parmentier, M. (2007). Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potential. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 710-732.
[23] Obiedzinska, A. & Waszkiewicz-Robak, B. (2012). Cold pressed oils as functional food. Zywnosc-Nauka Technologia Jakosc, 19, 27-44.
[24] Karimi, S., Shafiee, M., Ghadam, F., Abiri, A. & Abbasi, H. (2021). Experimental study on drag coefficient of a rising bubble in the presence of rhamnolipid as a biosurfactant. J. Dispersion Sci. Technol., 42, 835-845.
[25] Tzounakos, A., Karamanev, D. G., Margaritis, A. & Bergougnou, M. A. (2004). Effect of the surfactant concentration on the rise of gas bubbles in power-law non-Newtonian liquids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43, 5790-5795.
[26] Li, Y., Yang, L., Zhu, T., Yang, J. & Ruan, X. (2013). Biosurfactants as alternatives to chemosynthetic surfactants in controlling bubble behavior in the flotation process. J. Surfactants Deterg., 16, 409-419.
[27] Karimi, S., Abiri, A. & Shafiee, M. (2022). Hydrodynamic study of a rising bubble in the presence of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng., 42, 486-499.
[28] Maia, P. C., Santos, V. P., Fereira, A. S., Luna, M. A., Silva, T. A., Andrade, R. F. & Campos-Takaki, G. M. (2018). An efficient bioemulsifier-producing Bacillus subtilis UCP 0146 isolated from mangrove sediments. Colloids Interfaces, 2, 58.
[29] Ciszewski, R. K., Gordon, B. P., Muller, B. N. & Richmond, G. L. (2019). Takes Two to Tango: Choreography of the Coadsorption of CTAB and Hexanol at the Oil–Water Interface. J. Phys. Chem., 123, 8519-8531.
[30] Yao, N., Wang, Y., Liu, J., Sun, X., Hao, Z., Liu, Y., Chen, S. & Wang, G. (2021). Bubble rise characteristics in oscillating grid turbulence. Miner. Eng., 164, 106832.
[31] Shang, X., Luo, Z., Hu, G. & Bai, B. (2022). Role of surfactant-induced Marangoni effects in droplet dynamics on a solid surface in shear flow. Colloids Surf., A, 654, 130142.
[32] Yan, X., Zheng, K., Jia, Y., Miao, Z., Wang, L., Cao, Y. & Liu, J. (2018). Drag coefficient prediction of a single bubble rising in liquids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 57, 5385-5393.
[33] Rodi, W. & Fueyo, N. (2002). Direct test of boussinesq's hypothesis and the k-transport equation using experimental, DNS and LES data. Eng. Turbul. Modell. Exp., 167-176.
[34] Wegener, M., Kraume, M. & Paschedag, A. R. (2010). Terminal and transient drop rise velocity of single toluene droplets in water. AIChE journal, 56, 2-10.
[35] Kelbaliyev, G. & Ceylan, K. (2007). Development of new empirical equations for estimation of drag coefficient, shape deformation, and rising velocity of gas bubbles or liquid drops. Chem. Eng. Commun., 194, 1623-1637.
[36] Rao, A., Reddy, R. K., Ehrenhauser, F., Nandakumar, K., Thibodeaux, L. J., Rao, D. & Valsaraj, K. T. (2014). Effect of surfactant on the dynamics of a crude oil droplet in water column: Experimental and numerical investigation. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 92, 2098-2114.
[37] Schiller, L. (1933). A drag coefficient correlation. Zeit. Ver. Deutsch. Ing., 77, 318-320.
[38] Vecer, M., Lestinsky, P., Wichterle, K. & Ruzicka, M. (2012). On bubble rising in countercurrent flow. Int. J. Chem. React. Eng., 10.
[39] Bide, Y., Fashapoyeh, M. A. & Shokrollahzadeh, S. (2012). Structural investigation and application of Tween 80-choline chloride self-assemblies as osmotic agent for water desalination. Sci. Rep., 11, 17068.