The effects of ohmic cooking process on some physical and chemical characteristics of button mushrooms

Document Type : Research Article


1 MSc Student of Department of Biosystem Mechanical Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Bio-System Mechanical Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Department of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran



In this research, the ohmic heating method was used to reduce the moisture content of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The purpose of this research is to investigate some physical and chemical characteristics of the button mushroom at the end of the ohmic process. In this research, three voltages of 60, 75, and 90 volts were used, and according to the 8 cm distance between the electrodes, 7.5, 9.37, and 11.25 volts/cm were obtained. Also, three types of steel, brass and aluminum electrodes and three concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% ohmic solution were selected for the experiment. In order to colorimetrically measure button mushrooms, the images were scanned in color using Image J software in the Lab space, and the extracted values were expressed as percentages. Also, in order to measure chemical properties, 0.5 g of dried samples were separated and methanolic extract was prepared and properties including antioxidant activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, vitamin C, pH and Brix were measured. The results showed that with the increase of the voltage gradient, the value of the browning index and the total color changes increased significantly. The highest and lowest values of the browning index were 244.39 (voltage gradient 11.25 V/cm-aluminum electrode) and 86.39 (voltage gradient 7.5 V/cm-steel electrode). The highest and lowest total color changes were 27.98 (aluminum electrode) and 16.01 (steel electrode) and the increase in browning index and total color changes were observed in steel, brass and aluminum electrodes, respectively. . In the chemical properties section, similar information was obtained in the parameters of antioxidant activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, vitamin C and soluble solids; So, with the increase of the voltage gradient, the value of these parameters increased significantly. In the voltage gradient of 11.25 V/cm, the highest values have been observed.

Graphical Abstract

The effects of ohmic cooking process on some physical and chemical characteristics of button mushrooms


  • Increasing the voltage has caused more color changes in the mushroom.
  • The use of steel electrode caused the least amount of changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the mushroom sample.
  • The use of higher voltage has caused less changes in the chemical properties of mushrooms.


Main Subjects

[1]    Yildiz-Turp, G., Sengun, I., Kendirci, P., & Icier, F. (2013). Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: A review. Meat Science, 93(3), 441–448. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.10.013
 [2]   Vahedi Torshizi, M., & Kashaninejad, M. (2022). Investigation of Changes in the Qualitative Properties of Sour Orange Juice during the Ohmic Heating Process. Food Engineering Research, 21(2), 1–14.
[3]    Srivastav, S., & Roy, S. (2014). Changes in electrical conductivity of liquid foods during ohmic heating. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 7(5), 133–138. doi: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20140705.015
[4]    Vahedi Torshizi, M., Azadbakht, M., & Kashaninejad, M. (2020). Application of response surface method to energy and exergy analyses of the ohmic heating dryer for sour orange juice. Fuel, 278, 118261.
 [5]   Darvishi, H., Koushesh Saba, M., Behroozi-Khazaei, N., & Nourbakhsh, H. (2020). Improving quality and quantity attributes of grape juice concentrate (molasses) using ohmic heating. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(4), 1362–1370.
[6]    Vahedi Torshizi, M., Azadbakht, M., & Kashaninejad, M. (2020). A study on the energy and exergy of Ohmic heating (OH) process of sour orange juice using an artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). Food Science & Nutrition, 8(8), 4432–4445. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1741
 [7]   Bozkurt, H., & Icier, F. (2010). Exergetic performance analysis of ohmic cooking process. Journal of Food Engineering, 100(4), 688–695. doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.05.020
 [8]   Azadbakht, M., Torshizi, M. V., & Kashaninejad, M. (2020). Application of the response surface method in the analysis of ohmic heating process performance in sour orange juice processing. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 22(3), 250–261.
[9]    Avila, I. M. L. B., & Silva, C. L. . (1999). Modeling kinetics of thermal degradation of color in peach puree. Journal of Food Engineering, 39, 161–166.
 [10] Bhat, S., Saini, C. S., & Sharma, H. K. (2017). Changes in total phenolic content and color of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice upon conventional and ohmic blanching. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(1), 29–36. doi: 10.1007/s10068-017-0004-7
 [11] Ishita, C., & Athmaselvi, K. A. (2017). Changes in pH and colour of watermelon juice during ohmic heating. International Food Research Journal, 24(2), 741–746.
[12]  Jafarzadeh, S., Azadbakht, M., Varasteh, F., & Vahedi Torshizi, M. (2022). Effects of various coatings and packing materials on persimmon fruit color indexes during quasi-static loading. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 18(3), 1–14. doi: 10.22067/IFSTRJ.2021.72937.1098
 [13] Azadbakht, M., & Vahedi Torshizi, M. (2020). The Antioxidant Activity Components Change of Pears Subject to Static and Dynamic Loads. International Journal of Fruit Science, 00(00), 1–21. doi: 10.1080/15538362.2020.1718053
 [14] Azadbakht, M., Rezaeiasl, A., Mahmoodi, M. J., Vahedi Torshizi, M., & Hashemi Shabankareh, S. (2021). Evaluation of ambient light and moisture, and edible coatings in different storage period, on pressurized kiwifruit antioxidant properties. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15(1), 697–706. doi: 10.1007/s11694-020-00674-z
 [15] S Jafarzadeh, Sajad, Azadbakht, M., Varasteh, F., & Torshizi, M. V. (2022). The antioxidant properties of compressed persimmon fruit using putrescine coatings and polyamine films. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 24(2), 207–226.
 [16] Hashemi, M., Ramezani, V., Seyedabadi, M., Ranjbar, A. M., Jafari, H., Honarvar, M., & Fanaei, H. (2017). Formulation and optimization of oral mucoadhesive patches of myrtus communis by box behnken design. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 7(3), 441.
 [17] Abhilasha, P., & Pal, U. S. (2018). Effect of Ohmic Heating on Quality and Storability of Sugarcane Juice. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(1), 2856–2868. doi: 10.20546/ijcmas.2018.701.340
 [18] Chakraborty, I., & Athmaselvi, K. A. (2014). Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Guava Juice during Ohmic Heating. Journal Of Ready To Eat Food, 1(4), 152–157.
[19]  Makroo, H. A., Saxena, J., Rastogi, N. K., & Srivastava, B. (2017). Ohmic heating assisted polyphenol oxidase inactivation of watermelon juice: Effects of the treatment on pH, lycopene, total phenolic content, and color of the juice. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41(6), 1–9. doi: 10.1111/jfpp.13271
 [20] Aguiló-Aguayo, I., Soliva-Fortuny, R., & Martín-Belloso, O. (2010). Color and viscosity of watermelon juice treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields or heat. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11(2), 299–305. doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2009.12.004
 [21] Grimi, N., Mamouni, F., Lebovka, N., Vorobiev, E., & Vaxelaire, J. (2011). Impact of apple processing modes on extracted juice quality: Pressing assisted by pulsed electric fields. Journal of Food Engineering, 103(1), 52–61. doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.09.019
 [22] Gavahian, M., & Chu, R. (2022). Ohmic Heating Extraction at Different Times, Temperatures, Voltages, and Frequencies: A New Energy-Saving Technique for Pineapple Core Valorization. Foods, 11(14), 2015.
 [23] Youssef, K. M., & Mokhtar, S. M. (2014). Effect of drying methods on the antioxidant capacity, color and phytochemicals of Portulaca oleracea L. leaves. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 4(6), 1.
 [24] Izli, N., ─░zli, G., & Taskin, O. (2017). Influence of different drying techniques on drying parameters of mango. Food Science and Technology, 37, 604–612.
[25]  Carranza-Concha, J., Benlloch, M., Camacho, M. M., & Martínez-Navarrete, N. (2012). Effects of drying and pretreatment on the nutritional and functional quality of raisins. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 90(2), 243–248.
[26]  Bushra, S., Farooq, A., Muhammad, A., & Nazamid, S. (2012). Effect of drying techniques on the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of selected fruits. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(1), 161–167.
 [27] Chen, M., Yang, D., & Liu, S. (2011). Effects of drying temperature on the flavonoid, phenolic acid and antioxidative capacities of the methanol extract of citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) peels. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46(6), 1179–1185.
 [28] Ranwala, A. P., Suematsu, C., & Masuda, H. (1992). Soluble and wall-bound invertases in strawberry fruit. Plant Science, 84(1), 59–64.
[29]  Klein, B. P., & Perry, A. K. (1982). Ascorbic acid and vitamin A activity in selected vegetables from different geographical areas of the United States. Journal of Food Science, 47(3), 941–945.
 [30] Lurie, S., & Klein, J. D. (1992). Calcium and Heat Treatments to Improve Storability ofAnna’Apples. HortScience, 27(1), 36–39.
 [31] Garcia, J. M., Aguilera, C., & Albi, M. A. (1995). Postharvest heat treatment on Spanish strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Tudla). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(6), 1489–1492.
Volume 10, Issue 3
May 2023
Pages 281-298
  • Receive Date: 28 April 2023
  • Revise Date: 07 August 2023
  • Accept Date: 07 August 2023
  • First Publish Date: 07 August 2023