Effect of fatty acid attached to chitosan in terms of saturation on the properties of spray dried hempseed oil powder

Document Type : Research Article


1 Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Semnan, Iran

2 Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology , Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatty acid attached to chitosan (CS) in terms of saturation on some physicochemical properties of hempseed oil Pickering emulsion powders were obtained by a newly designed spray dryer equipped with an electrostatic collector. Firstly, CS-stearic acid (SA) and CS-oleic acid (OA) nanogels were prepared. The results of IR spectra showed a successful binding between CS and fatty acids. In addition, the D50 of CS-SA nanogels was lower than that of CS-OA. Then, hempseed oil-in-water Pickering emulsions were stabilized by CS-based particles/maltodextrin (MD) and dried by the spray dryer equipped with the electrostatic collector. The results showed that droplet size of reconstituted emulsion from oil powder with CS-SA/MD coating (886.4±146.4) was significantly (p≤0.05) less than that of emulsion with CS-OA/MD (1415.8±130.0). SEM images also showed that hempseed oil encapsulated with CS-SA/MD had more sphericity, porosity, and crystallinity compared to that encapsulated by CS-OA/MD. Moreover, hempseed oil encapsulated with CS-OA/MD had higher oxidative stability that encapsulated by CS-SA/MD.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of fatty acid attached to chitosan in terms of saturation on the properties of spray dried hempseed oil powder


  • Stearic acid (SA) and oleic acid (PA) were attached to chitosan (CS).
  • Hempseed oil Pickering emulsions was stabilized by CS-based particles/maltodextrin.
  • Spray dryer equipped with an electrostatic collector was used to produce emulsion powders.
  • Powders with CS-SA/maltodextrin coating had more sphericity, porosity and crystallinity.
  • Powder with CS-OA/maltodextrin coating had more oxidative stability.


Main Subjects

[1] Hadian, M., Rajaei, A., Mohsenifar, A., & Tabatabaei, M. (2017). Encapsulation of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils in chitosan-benzoic acid nanogel with enhanced antibacterial activity in beef cutlet against Salmonella typhimurium during refrigerated storage. LWT, 84, 394-401.
[2] Rajaei, A., Hadian, M., Mohsenifar, A., Rahmani-Cherati, T., & Tabatabaei, M. (2017). A coating based on clove essential oils encapsulated by chitosan-myristic acid nanogel efficiently enhanced the shelf-life of beef cutlets. Food Packag. Shelf Life, 14, 137-145.
[3] Atarian, M., Rajaei, A., Tabatabaei, M., Mohsenifar, A., & Bodaghi, H. (2019). Formulation of Pickering sunflower oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by chitosan-stearic acid nanogel and studying its oxidative stability. Carbohydr. Polym., 210, 47-55.
[4] Hosseini, E., Rajaei, A., Tabatabaei, M., Mohsenifar, A., & Jahanbin, K. (2020). Preparation of Pickering flaxseed oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by chitosan-myristic acid nanogels and investigation of its oxidative stability in presence of clove essential oil as antioxidant. Food Biophysics, 15(2), 216-228.
[5] Hosseini, R. S., & Rajaei, A. (2020). Potential Pickering emulsion stabilized with chitosan-stearic acid nanogels incorporating clove essential oil to produce fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise. Carbohydr. Polym., 241, 116340.
[6] Rajaei, A., Shahbazi, N., Tabatabaei, M., Mohsenifar, A., & Bodaghi, H. (2020). Impact of chitosan-capric acid nanogels incorporating thyme essential oil on stability of pomegranate seed oil-in-water Pickering emulsion. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE).
[7] Yusuf, K. A., Olaniyan, A. M., Atanda, E. O., & Sulieman, I. A. (2014). Effects of heating temperature and seed condition on the yield and quality of mechanically expressed groundnut Oil. Int. J. Eng. Technol., 2(7), 73-78.
[8] Choe, E., & Min, D. B. (2006). Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 5(4), 169-186.
[9] Dijkstra, A. J., & Segers, J. C. (2007). Production and refining of oils and fats. The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, 143-262.
[10] Zhang, X., Li, Y., Li, J., Liang, H., Chen, Y., Li, B. ... & Liu, S. (2022). Edible oil powders based on spray-dried Pickering emulsion stabilized by soy protein/cellulose nanofibrils. LWT, 154, 112605.
[11] Esparza, Y., Ngo, T. D., & Boluk, Y. (2020). Preparation of powdered oil particles by spray drying of cellulose nanocrystals stabilized Pickering hempseed oil emulsions. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., 598, 124823.
[12] Singh, C. K. S., Lim, H. P., Tey, B. T., & Chan, E. S. (2021). Spray-dried alginate-coated Pickering emulsion stabilized by chitosan for improved oxidative stability and in vitro release profile. Carbohydr. Polym., 251, 117110.
[13] Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E., Bhandari, B., & He, Y. (2008). Nano-particle encapsulation of fish oil by spray drying. Int. Food Res. J., 41(2), 172-183.
[14] Arpagaus, C., Collenberg, A., Rütti, D., Assadpour, E., & Jafari, S. M. (2018). Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. Int. J. Pharm., 546(1-2), 194-214.
[15] Chopde, S., Datir, R., Deshmukh, G., Dhotre, A., & Patil, M. (2020). Nanoparticle formation by nanospray drying & its application in nanoencapsulation of food bioactive ingredients. J. Agric. Food Res., 2, 100085.
[16] Jafari, S. M., Arpagaus, C., Cerqueira, M. A., & Samborska, K. (2021). Nano spray drying of food ingredients; materials, processing and applications. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 109, 632-646.
[17] Sabnis, S., & Block, L. H. (1997). Improved infrared spectroscopic method for the analysis of degree of N-deacetylation of chitosan. Polymer bull., 39(1), 67-71.
[18] Robert, P., García, P., Reyes, N., Chávez, J., & Santos, J. (2012). Acetylated starch and inulin as encapsulating agents of gallic acid and their release behaviour in a hydrophilic system. Food chem., 134(1), 1-8.
[19] Xie, J., Luo, Y., Chen, Y., Liu, Y., Ma, Y., Zheng, Q., Yue P. & Yang, M. (2019). Redispersible Pickering emulsion powder stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose combining with cellulosic derivatives. Carbohydr. Polym., 213, 128-137.
[20] Shukla, N., Liu, C., Jones, P. M., & Weller, D. (2003). FTIR study of surfactant bonding to FePt nanoparticles. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 266(1-2), 178-184.
[21] Rao, K. K., Reddy, P. R., Lee, Y. I., & Kim, C. (2012). Synthesis and characterization of chitosan–PEG–Ag nanocomposites for antimicrobial application. Carbohydr. Polym., 87(1), 920-925.
[22] Shahidi, F. (Ed.). (2005). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Industrial and Nonedible Products from Oils and Fats (Vol. 6). John Wiley & Sons.
[23] Shahparast, Y., Eskandani, M., Rajaei, A., & Khosroushahi, A. Y. (2019). Preparation, physicochemical characterization and oxidative stability of omega-3 fish oil/α-tocopherol-co-loaded nanostructured lipidic carriers. Adv. Pharm. Bull., 9(3), 393.
[24] Harrison, G., Franks, G. V., Tirtaatmadja, V., & Boger, D. V. (1999). Suspensions and polymers-Common links in rheology. Korea Aust. Rheol. J., 11(3), 197-218.
[25] Song, X., Pei, Y., Qiao, M., Ma, F., Ren, H., & Zhao, Q. (2015). Preparation and characterizations of Pickering emulsions stabilized by hydrophobic starch particles. Food Hydrocoll., 45, 256-263.
[26] Kpogbemabou, D., Lecomte-Nana, G., Aimable, A., Bienia, M., Niknam, V., & Carrion, C. (2014). Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by phyllosilicates at high solid content. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., 463, 85-92.
[27] Zhang, X., Guan, J., Ni, R., Li, L. C., & Mao, S. (2014). Preparation and solidification of redispersible nanosuspensions. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 103(7), 2166-2176.
[28] Bunjes, H. (2005). Characterization of solid lipid nano-and microparticles (pp. 41-66). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
[29] Caparino, O. A., Tang, J., Nindo, C. I., Sablani, S. S., Powers, J. R., & Fellman, J. K. (2012). Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’var.) powder. J. Food Eng., 111(1), 135-148.
[30] Ravi, M., Song, S., Wang, J., Nadimicherla, R., & Zhang, Z. (2016). Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly (ε-caprolactone)-based gel polymer electrolyte films. Ionics, 22(5), 661-670.
[31] Martínez-Monteagudo, S. I., Saldana, M. D., & Kennelly, J. J. (2012). Kinetics of non-isothermal oxidation of anhydrous milk fat rich in conjugated linoleic acid using differential scanning calorimetry. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 107(3), 973-981.
[32] Ulkowski, M., Musialik, M., & Litwinienko, G. (2005). Use of differential scanning calorimetry to study lipid oxidation. 1. Oxidative stability of lecithin and linolenic acid. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(23), 9073-9077.
[33] Kowalski, B. (1991). Thermal-oxidative decomposition of edible oils and fats. DSC studies. Thermochim. acta, 184(1), 49-57.
[34] Pereira, T. A., & Das, N. P. (1990). The effects of flavonoids on the thermal autoxidation of palm oil and other vegetable oils determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermochim. acta, 165(1), 129-137.
[35] Büchi Labortechnik, A. G. (2017). PLGA sub-micron particles by Nano Spray Drying (No. 273). Application Note.