Fabrication and implementation of a biosensor for health evaluation in raw milk

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. student, Department of Mechanical Engineering Biosystems, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 shahrekord university

3 Shahrekord University.

4 Associate professor, Shahrekord University

5 Professor, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology.

6 Associate Professor, Department of Health and Food Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University.


The use of veterinary drugs, including antibiotics, leads to their aggregation in livestock products such as meat, milk, and eggs. Therefore, rapid, accurate and economy detection of antibiotics for monitoring of food security is necessary. In the current research, a biosensor based on pencil graphite electrode modified with grapheme and gold nanoparticles for detection of β-lactam antibiotic in milk samples was fabricated. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques for evaluation of surface electrode changes were applied. Under optimal conditions, using the EIS method specified that in the ranges of 1×10-15 to 1×10-5 M, The relationship between charge transfer resistance and the logarithm of antibiotic concentration was linear and the regression equation was y=119x+2600 (R²=0.977). The current peaks in three measures were achieved as 18, 19.5 and 19 µA. calculation of relative standard deviation (RSD=3.31%) that indicated an acceptable repeatability for biosensor. For investigating of reproducibility, RDS for current peaks was 8.94% that showed a good reproducibility for biosensor. The selectivity of a biosensor in the presence of three antibiotics including streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine was checked. Data of charge transfer resistance was indicated that biosensor has non-significant the response towards the other antibiotics. The results showed that biosensor response decreased by 6% after 18 days compared with the first day, which indicates good stability for biosensor. The percentage recovery range for milk samples at concentrations of 1 × 10-9 and 1× 10-11 M for two samples of cow and sheep milk was obtained as 92.3 to 104% in three replications, which indicates an acceptable recovery range for proposed biosensor.

Graphical Abstract

Fabrication and implementation of a biosensor for health evaluation in raw milk


  • Nanomaterials based on reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles were used for beta-lactame (BL) detection.
  • The proposed biosensor had high sensitive (LOD: 0.8 fM). 
  • The biosensor indicates a good efficiency for determination of BL in cow and sheep milk samples.


Main Subjects

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Volume 8, Issue 4
August 2021
Pages 457-468
  • Receive Date: 29 April 2019
  • Revise Date: 08 June 2019
  • Accept Date: 20 July 2019
  • First Publish Date: 23 July 2021