Physicochemical characteristics evaluation of Zard olive cultivar prepared with alkaline processing method

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Biotechnology Institute, Iranian Research Organization of Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this research is to investigate the unique properties of Yellow olive harvested from Tarem (Ghazvin province) using alkaline processing method. We looked at different salt concentrations (4%, 8% and 10%) and lactic acid concentrations (0.0% and 0.5%) using alkaline method for 210 days of processing. For different salt and lactic acid concentrations, we measured the physicochemical properties such as pH, total phenol, Reducing sugars and fatty acid profiles for both the olives and the curing liquid. The results shows: Total phenol decreases in the olive and increases in the curing liquid as the processing time increases. Increasing salt concentration, increases total phenol in the olive. Lactic acid decreases total phenol in the olive and increases it in the curing fluid. Longer processing time results in lowering pH in the olive and increasing pH in the curing liquid. Lowering pH in the olive is an important factor in improving quality by reducing product contamination during processing. Reducing sugars are consumed by microorganisms during the processing, thus their concentration decreases as the processing time increases. The highest drop in concentration was noticed in 8% salt group. Also the reducing sugar concentration was more drastically reduced in groups that contained lactic acid compre to the groups without any lactic acid. This is probably due to lactic acid decreasing pH resulting in increased activity of micro-oganisms. Results of fatty acid profile for both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids show an increase in ω6 compare to the raw olive. However the ratio on ω3/ω6 was reduced in all groups compare to the raw olive. Our research shows that increasing salt concentration and using lactic acid can reduce pH and increase the activity levels of desirable micro-organism resulting in cured olives with improved quality and increased shelf life.

Graphical Abstract

Physicochemical characteristics evaluation of Zard olive cultivar prepared with alkaline processing method


Main Subjects

[1] Zeinanloo, A.A. (2010). The Oily and canned olive cultivars. Qazvin: Sayegostar publisher. [In Persian]
[2] Ebrahim zade, H., Zeinanloo, A.A., & Peivandi, M. (2012). The olive of Iran in a research perspective. Tehran: Takrang Publisher. [In Persian]
[3] Ruíz-Barba, J.L., Rios-Sánchez, R.M., Fedriani-Iriso, C., Olias, J.M., Rios, J.L., & Jiménez-Díaz, R. (1990). Bactericidal effect of phenolic compounds from green olives on Lactobacillus plantarum. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 13 199–205.
[4] Romeo, F. V., Piscopo, A., & Poiana, M. (2010).  Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa). Grasas y Aceites., 61 (3), 251-260.
 [5] Mosallaei, A. (2013). The organization and promotion of the safety in traditional olive processing workshops of Tarom Sofla district of Qazvin province. The comprehensive health plan of Qazvin province. [In Persian]
 [6] Campaniello, D., Bevilacqua, A., D’Amato, D., Corbo, M. R., Altieri, C., & Sinigaglia, M. (2005). Microbial characterization of table olives processed according to spanish and natural styles. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 43 (3) 289–294.
[7] Dokhani, S., Saburi-Helestani S., & Shokrani R. (2000). Qualitative and quantitative change of sugar in processed olives during fermentation by HPLC. Iranian J. Agric. Sci., 31 (4), 677-687. [In Persian]
 [8] Nikzad, N., Sahari, M. A., Ghavami M., Piravi Vanak, Z., Hoseini, S. E., Safafar, H., & Boland Nazar, S. A. (2012). Physico-chemical properties and nutritional indexes of cultivars during table olive processing. JFST., 10 (39), 31-41. [In Persian]
[9] Amooi, A., Sahari, M.L., & Barzegar, M. (2015).  Effect of the processing steps (harvesting time to pasteurization) on percentage of fatty acids in table olive. Curr. Nutr. Food Sci., 11, 44-52.
 [10] Soleimani Morche Khorti, E., & Memarian, H. (2012). Investigation of the olive production status in the country (with an emphasis on guaranteed purchase). The office of infrastructure studies of Islamic Consultative Assembly. Code 250, Serial number 12311. [In Persian]
 [11] Hazbavi A., Fattahi F., Kazemi S.H., & Ashraf Z. (2008). Some of the engineering properties of olive fruit and olive pit. In: Proceedings of the 18th Natl. Food Sci. Technol. Congr. (pp. 1-5), Mashhad, Iran.
[12] Garrido-Fernandez Α., Fernandez M.J., & Adams M.R. (1997). Naturally black olives type. In: Garrido-Fernandez A., M.J. Fernandez and M.R. Adams (Eds). Table olives: Production and processing (pp. 289–367). London: Chapman and Hall
[13] IOC, (2001). Preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters from olive oil and pomace olive oil, COI/T.20/ Doc. No. 24
[14] Kiai, H., Hafidi, A. (2014). Chemical composition changes in four green olive cultivars during spontaneous fermentation. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 57(2), 663-670·
[15]Unal, K., & Nergiz, C. (2003). The effect of table olive preparing methods and storage on the composition and nutritive value of olives. Grasas y Aceites., 54 (1), 71-76.
[16] Romeo, F. V. (July 10th 2012). Microbiological Aspects of Table Olives. 23rd Reviewed, DOI: 10.5772/51479
[17] Piga, A., & Agabbio, M. (2003). Quality improvement of naturally green table olives by controlling some processing parameters. Ital. J. Food Sci., 15, 259-268